Recovery strategy and Action Plan for the Banff Springs Snail (Physella johnsoni) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is toincorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies,plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery strategies and action plans may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are summarized below.

While thisBanff Springs Snail Recovery and Action Plan will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Banff Springs Snail, several potentially adverse effects were also considered.

The potential for recovery actions to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. Recent surveys have shown that the Sulphur Mountain thermal springs in BNP harbour high numbers of rare species among several taxa.

In addition to the Banff Springs Snail, survey work found two rare damselflies, 28 rare mosses (including one new provincial record), six rare liverworts, eight rare plants, and three rare amphibians.

It was determined that actions requiring the physical alteration of hot springs have the potential to adversely affect the mosses, liverworts and plants through direct physical damage to them or the substrates they require to grow. Water flow changes as a result of such physical alterations could leave mosses and liverworts submerged or result in them drying out. Water flow changes resulting in a reduction of cooler free-flowing water could lead to a reduction in damselfly larval habitat. In addition, the development of policies to address population lows, including such potential activities as supplemental feeding and modification of lighting, have the potential to cause adverse effects on the microbial community (algae and bacteria). Altered light regimes could lead to greater or lesser microbial growth, or changes in microbial community composition which could in turn effect the Banff Springs Snail as the microbial community makes up a large part of its diet. These proposed activities would be subject to specific environmental assessments prior to approval. For each environmental assessment the potential effects on other species, including the rare mosses, liverworts, vascular plants, damselflies and amphibians, must be included. Increasing ecosystem knowledge through designing a multi-species or ecosystem recovery strategy would have a large positive effect on all species, including the rare mosses, liverworts, vascular plants, and amphibians, that inhabit the Sulphur Mountain thermal springs.

The SEA also looked at the potential effects of proposed actions on visitor experience and commemorative integrity. It was determined that the additional pickets added to guide rails along sections of boardwalk and the possibility of constructing a touching pool have the potential to affect both visitor experience and the commemorative integrity of the site by altering the natural physical attributes and sensory experience.

Preventing limb-dipping completely (through some sort of physical barrier) may affect both visitor experience and commemorative integrity, while allowing it could potentially cause harm to the Banff Springs Snail. The recovery strategy and action plan suggests evaluating the feasibility of constructing a specific thermal water touching pool. It is recommended that the proposal to build a specific touching pool be addressed in the Cave & Basin National Historic Site of Canada management planning and environmental assessment processes to ensure that it is addressed in the context of visitor experience and commemorative integrity for the entire site. It is also recommended that research be initiated into the effects of limb-dipping on the Banff Springs Snail.

If the re-establishment of snails at the Upper Hot Spring is biologically feasible effects on visitor experience and cultural resources will need to be evaluated.

Further information is presented in theStrategic Environmental Assessment for the Recovery Strategy and Action Plan for the Banff Springs Snail (Physella johnsoni) in Canada (Parks Canada 2006). Taking these mitigation measures into account, it was concluded that the strategy will not cause any significant adverse effects.

Implementation of the recovery strategy and action plan will mitigate the effects of threats, protect and enhance critical habitat and improve upon knowledge gaps, thereby resulting in positive impacts to the species and its thermal spring habitat.

Recovery strategy for multi-species at risk in Maritime Meadows associated with Garry Oak Ecosystems in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is toincorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies,plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery strategies and action plans may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are summarized below.

While thisBanff Springs Snail Recovery and Action Plan will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Banff Springs Snail, several potentially adverse effects were also considered.

The potential for recovery actions to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. Recent surveys have shown that the Sulphur Mountain thermal springs in BNP harbour high numbers of rare species among several taxa.

In addition to the Banff Springs Snail, survey work found two rare damselflies, 28 rare mosses (including one new provincial record), six rare liverworts, eight rare plants, and three rare amphibians.

It was determined that actions requiring the physical alteration of hot springs have the potential to adversely affect the mosses, liverworts and plants through direct physical damage to them or the substrates they require to grow. Water flow changes as a result of such physical alterations could leave mosses and liverworts submerged or result in them drying out. Water flow changes resulting in a reduction of cooler free-flowing water could lead to a reduction in damselfly larval habitat. In addition, the development of policies to address population lows, including such potential activities as supplemental feeding and modification of lighting, have the potential to cause adverse effects on the microbial community (algae and bacteria). Altered light regimes could lead to greater or lesser microbial growth, or changes in microbial community composition which could in turn effect the Banff Springs Snail as the microbial community makes up a large part of its diet. These proposed activities would be subject to specific environmental assessments prior to approval. For each environmental assessment the potential effects on other species, including the rare mosses, liverworts, vascular plants, damselflies and amphibians, must be included. Increasing ecosystem knowledge through designing a multi-species or ecosystem recovery strategy would have a large positive effect on all species, including the rare mosses, liverworts, vascular plants, and amphibians, that inhabit the Sulphur Mountain thermal springs.

The SEA also looked at the potential effects of proposed actions on visitor experience and commemorative integrity. It was determined that the additional pickets added to guide rails along sections of boardwalk and the possibility of constructing a touching pool have the potential to affect both visitor experience and the commemorative integrity of the site by altering the natural physical attributes and sensory experience.

Preventing limb-dipping completely (through some sort of physical barrier) may affect both visitor experience and commemorative integrity, while allowing it could potentially cause harm to the Banff Springs Snail. The recovery strategy and action plan suggests evaluating the feasibility of constructing a specific thermal water touching pool. It is recommended that the proposal to build a specific touching pool be addressed in the Cave & Basin National Historic Site of Canada management planning and environmental assessment processes to ensure that it is addressed in the context of visitor experience and commemorative integrity for the entire site. It is also recommended that research be initiated into the effects of limb-dipping on the Banff Springs Snail.

If the re-establishment of snails at the Upper Hot Spring is biologically feasible effects on visitor experience and cultural resources will need to be evaluated.

Further information is presented in theStrategic Environmental Assessment for the Recovery Strategy and Action Plan for the Banff Springs Snail (Physella johnsoni) in Canada (Parks Canada 2006). Taking these mitigation measures into account, it was concluded that the strategy will not cause any significant adverse effects.

Implementation of the recovery strategy and action plan will mitigate the effects of threats, protect and enhance critical habitat and improve upon knowledge gaps, thereby resulting in positive impacts to the species and its thermal spring habitat.

Recovery strategy for multi-species at risk in Garry Oak Woodlands in Canada

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on nontarget species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly in the strategy itself, but are also summarized below.

There are no obvious adverse environmental effects of the proposed recovery strategy. Implementation of direction contained within this recovery strategy should result in positive environmental effects. In this strategy, the appropriate species (i.e. those in greatest danger of irreversible damage) are targeted for action. Threats to species and habitat are identified to the degree possible and related knowledge gaps are acknowledged. The state of knowledge of habitat critical for the survival and recovery of these species is provided and a specific course of action for definition of these spaces is outlined. Recovery objectives relate back to the specified threatsand information gaps. It follows that acting upon the objectives will help to mitigate the effects of threats and improve upon knowledge gaps, thereby resulting in positive impacts to the subject species populations.

The compatibility of this recovery strategy and other plans is facilitated through the multistakeholder committee structure of the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team. It is reasonable to assume that successful stakeholder participation allows for this recovery strategy and relevant plans to be mutually influenced, thereby resulting in some degree of compatibility and positive cumulative effects.
Recovery strategy for the Seaside Centipede Lichen (Heterodermia sitchensis) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally-sound decision making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on nontarget species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly in the strategy itself, but are also summarized below.

The Recovery Strategy for the Seaside Centipede Lichen (Heterodermia sitchensis) in Canada underwent a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) review in accordance with the 2004 Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. Impact assessment methodology focussed on identification and assessment of actions capable of generating environmental effects. Positive and negative impacts were considered. Scope of the assessment included review and evaluation of all actions proposed in the Recovery Strategy for the Seaside Centipede Lichen in Canada. Proposals thought to have potential to generate significant environmental effects were assessed and documented in greater detail. Results of the assessment are briefly discussed here. Please consult the Strategic Environmental Assessment of the Recovery Strategy for the Seaside Centipede Lichen in Canada, for detailed environmental assessment documentation.

The Recovery Strategy identified current threats to the Seaside Centipede Lichen and its habitat. Knowledge gaps were also identified. Recovery objectives and actions clearly focus on resolving specific threats and information gaps. Actions proposed in the recovery strategy have little potential to produce significant adverse environmental effects. The majority of actions are innocuous by nature. Actions involving fieldwork (inventory, monitoring, research) have the greatest potential to generate negative environmental effects. All fieldwork impacts are avoidable or can be fully mitigated with known technology.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The recovery strategy and SEA therefore assessed the potential for the strategy to inadvertently produce adverse effects on other species. Results indicate likely benefits to the Seaside Centipede Lichen and other species occupying the same habitat. Recovery strategy implementation is expected to result in increased retention of coastal oldgrowth forest, and improved knowledge and understanding of Seaside Centipede Lichen ecology in Pacific Northwest coastal environments. An improved ecological understanding of the species is beneficial, as it will help to focus current and subsequent recovery planning actions for the species and improve the probability for successful recovery. The net environmental effect of the recovery strategy is expected to be positive to both the species and the habitat in which it exists.

Some proposals described in the recovery strategy are conceptual. It is not possible to fully evaluate the environmental effects of these initiatives at this time. As more detailed information becomes available, projects will be assessed pursuant to the provisions of theCanadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA). The Parks Canada Agency is a Responsible Authority under the CEAA. The Agency will not undertake any project prior to preparing an environmental assessment and deciding on a course of action to approve, not approve, or refer the project for additional EA review.

Recovery strategy for multi-species at risk in Vernal Pools and other Ephemeral Wet areas associated with Garry Oak Ecosystems in Canada

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on nontarget species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly in the strategy itself, but are also summarized below.

There are no obvious adverse environmental effects of the proposed recovery strategy. Implementation of direction contained within this recovery strategy should result in positive environmental effects. In this strategy, the appropriate species (i.e. those in greatest danger of irreversible damage) are targeted for action. Threats to species and habitat are identified to the degree possible and related knowledge gaps are acknowledged. The state of knowledge of habitat critical for the survival and recovery of these species is provided and a specific course of action for definition of these spaces is outlined. Recovery objectives relate back to the specified threats and information gaps. It follows that acting upon the objectives will help to mitigate the effects of threats and improve upon knowledge gaps, thereby resulting in positive impacts to the subject species populations.

The compatibility of this recovery strategy and other plans is facilitated through the multistakeholder committee structure of the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team. It is reasonable to assume that successful stakeholder participation allows for this recovery strategy and relevant plans to be mutually influenced, thereby resulting in some degree of compatibility and positive cumulative effects.
Recovery strategy for Forked Three-awned Grass (Aristida basiramea) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally-sound decision making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits.

Overall, this strategy will have positive effects not only on the target species but also on the environment as a whole. Establishing protected areas whereAristida basiramea is found will help protect most other species found on those lands. Increased education and awareness of landowners may also have an overall positive effect on the environment by increasing stewardship activities.

While this recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment, several potentially adverse effects were also considered. The adverse environmental effects include:

  • Damage and/or destruction of non-target plant species, during research and monitoring as a result of trampling. For example, the white-tinge sedge (Carex albicans var. albicans (= C. artitecta)), a species listed as S2 in Ontario (6 to 20 occurrences) and noted in 2003 in close proximity to the Forked three-awned grass at GBI) (Parks Canada Biotics, 2005);
  • Damage and/or destruction of nesting sites, residences, or habitat of animal species including species at risk, during research and monitoring as a result of trampling. For example, spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata) (Endangered), although not recorded since 1974 in GBI NP, could nest in the habitat where A. basiramea occurs);
  • Disturbance of animal and bird species during monitoring by presence of researchers in area; and
  • Damage and/or destruction of non-target species and habitat during prescribed burning, especially invertebrates.

The potential adverse environmental effects on non-target species during research and monitoring can be mitigated by determining exactly what other species are in the area and ensuring that any research and monitoring is done at times or in locations that will avoid or minimize disturbance to other sensitive species or their habitats. Annual burning could have adverse effects if conducted in areas where there are species sensitive to fire. If the habitat of the Christian Island population is to continue to be burned annually, then a determination of the other species occurring in this area should be completed to make certain that other non-target species are not adversely affected. Follow-up monitoring is recommended for any burning that is done to enhance forked three-awned grass habitat.

The majority of the known populations of Forked Three-awned Grass in Canada occur on Beausoleil First Nation lands. Concern has been expressed by Beausoleil First Nation regarding the amount of responsibility that will be placed on them to protect the species. The adverse socio-economic effects and appropriate level of responsibility will be examined in more detail at the action plan stage.

Recovery strategy for the Pink Sand-verbena (Abronia umbellata) in Canada

In accordance with The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004), a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies. The purpose of SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is incorporated directly into the strategy and also summarized below.

This recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Pink Sand-verbena. Activities to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects, as they are mostly limited to protection and restoration of habitat, species reestablishment, increasing public awareness and engaging landowners. The recovery strategy identifies current threats (Section 1.2) to the Pink Sandverbena and its habitat as well as current knowledge gaps (Section 1.5). Recovery objectives clearly focus on resolving these threats and filling information gaps. Activities may also inadvertently benefit non-target species (Section 2.2.5). The greatest potential for environmental effects comes from fieldwork activities, however these effects are avoidable or can be fully mitigated with known technology and proper field procedures.

Some recovery strategy activities, such as species translocations, may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA, S.C. 1992, c. 37). Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act. In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will have several positive effects on the environment. No important negative effects are expected.
Recovery strategy for the Engelmann's Quillwort (Isoetes engelmannii) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery strategies, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, 2004. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that some strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Information from the SEA (Parks Canada 2006) is summarized below and briefly outlines the potential positive environmental effects as a result of the proposed recovery efforts. Information on the effects to other species and the environment is included in sections 1.5 (Habitat) and 5.4 (Effects on Other Species) of the “Recovery Strategy for the Engelmann’s quillwort (Isoetes engelmannii) in Canada [Proposed]”.

The Recovery Strategy objectives include determination of population size, distribution and ecological requirements, subpopulation monitoring, threats identification and monitoring, policy and legislation, education, and restoration. These activities will positively impact the target species, in addition to its hybrid, Eaton’s quillwort (Isoetes x eatonii). Recovery efforts will also benefit other aquatic plant species occupying the waters defined under the proposed critical habitat in the Gull and Severn rivers. Specifically,

  • Protection of critical habitat (existing and any future sightings) will provide protection to Engelmann’s quillwort, in addition to other commonly associated species such as Eelgrass (Vallisneria americana) and Spiny quillwort (Isoetes echinospora) (see Section 1.5 of the Recovery Strategy for a more complete listing of species). Many of these species face similar threats (e.g. shading, degraded water quality, dredging, recreational boat traffic and anchoring). Protection may in turn benefit other aquatic invertebrates (e.g. crayfish, clams, snails) and fish that use these aquatic plants during all or part of their lifecycle.
  • Listing of the target species under the OntarioEndangered Species Act will afford it greater protection and also benefit other species occupying the surrounding and downstream waters (see Section 1.5 of the Recovery Strategy).
  • Mapping will help to more accurately identify distribution of the target species and will also help to ensure protection during development.
  • Education should help to promote stewardship. Landowner contact will increase awareness and reduce threats to the target species and its critical habitat as well as neighbouring species. Both are consistent with Management Plan objectives for the Trent Severn Waterway (2000) and will assist in management of adjacent lands and shorelines. Combining education, communication and consultation efforts for Engelmann’s quillwort with Eaton’s quillwort should assist recovery efforts since Engelmann’s quillwort is always found with Eatons’s. Eaton’s quillwort is also included in the proposed definition of critical habitat.
  • Reduced nutrient loading will improve water quality by decreasing the abundance of algae, nutrients and suspended matter and increasing oxygen levels and light penetration. This will contribute to maintenance of the rivers’ current oligotrophic status.
  • Efforts to maintain available habitat for the target species will benefit other associated species, ecological process (e.g. fish spawning, food chains) and the environment (e.g. water quality). This would involve restoration and management efforts (see Section 5.1 and Table 3 of the Recovery Strategy).

Negative environmental impacts as a result of the proposed strategies were not identified, and therefore mitigation is not required. However, follow-up will be required for any reintroductions of Engelmann’s quillwort. Reintroductions may be subject to further project-level environmental assessment at federal and provincial sites under theCanadian Environmental Assessment Act (1992) and Class Environmental Assessment Act for Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves (2005), respectively.

Recovery strategy for the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus) in Canada

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act (SARA) recovery strategies. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision making. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The results of the SEA (Forrestall 2006) are summarized below.

This Greater Sage-Grouse recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus urophasianus). Species that will benefit from protection of the shrinking sagebrush ecosystems include the endangered Sage Thrasher (Oreoscoptes montanus) and Burrowing Owl (Speotyto cunicularia), the threatened Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus excubitorides) and Mormon metalmark butterfly (Apodemia mormo), and the Long-billed Curlew (Numenius americanus), listed as special concern. This recovery strategy will also have a positive effect on native culture by promoting the recovery of the Greater Sage-Grouse, a living part of native culture. However, three situations were identified where there is the potential for negative effects.

First, it was determined that a strategy researching the use of fire as a tool to stimulate and revitalize sagebrush communities could lead to activities involving the controlled burning of prairie habitat. This could potentially have a negative impact on other species directly or through disturbance or destruction of their habitat and/or residences. Being aware of other species at risk in the specific area and following best fire management practices would reduce or eliminate any potential negative effects on other species. Any prescribed burning within a national park would require a more detailed environmental assessment under CEAA.

Second, investigations into the impacts of human created water control structures on natural hydrology and the resulting effects on sagebrush could lead to actions involving the alteration of hydrology. Altering the hydrology of an area could have potential negative effects on other plant and animal species directly or through disturbance or destruction of their habitat and/or residences. Any alterations to hydrology should take into account effects on non-target species and may require a more detailed environmental assessment under CEAA.

Third, strategies relating to the protection or increase of silver sagebrush habitat would have a positive effect on all species that share the same habitat as the Greater Sage-Grouse, as discussed above. However, increasing available sagebrush habitat for the Greater Sage-Grouse could potentially have a negative impact on the Mountain Plover (Charadrius montanus), which requires short vegetation and bare ground. However, the Mountain Plover is a species listed under the SARA and therefore requires a recovery strategy that will address monitoring, research and threats, which may include impacts as a result of increasing sagebrush habitat.

The SEA concluded that this recovery strategy will have many positive effects and not cause any important negative effects, as long as the mitigation measures recommended are implemented. This includes any further assessments of actions identified as a result of research conducted in this recovery strategy, such as burning or altering hydrology within a national park.

Recovery strategy for the Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) in Canada

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act (SARA) recovery strategies. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision making. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The results of the SEA (Forrestall 2006) are summarized below.

This recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the swift fox (Vulpes velox). In addition, the large number of vulnerable species and the ever shrinking mixed-grass prairie ecosystems they inhabit will benefit from the additional conservation efforts afforded through this recovery strategy. This recovery strategy will also have a positive effect on aboriginal culture by promoting the recovery of the swift fox, thereby returning it to a living part of aboriginal culture. However, there is the potential for negative effects in two situations.

Two potential impacts were identified. First, it was determined that increases in swift fox populations have the potential to adversely affect populations of Sage-Grouse and black-tailed prairie dogs through potentially increased predation. These species are listed under SARA and therefore require recovery planning that will address monitoring, research and any actions that may be necessary to limit the impacts of increases in swift fox populations. In addition, there is a strategy to pursue integrating swift fox recovery into a prairie based conservation plan incorporating all existing prairie species.

Second, it is also possible that plans to alter coyote/red fox density would be proposed as a result of research into optimal coyote/red fox densities for swift fox survival. This could result in a potential negative effect on coyote and red fox populations if a reduction in populations is required. Both the coyote and red fox have abundant and secure populations so alterations to their population densities in specific locations are not likely to put them at risk. However, changes to predator prey relations for other species as a result of such a population alteration should also be taken into consideration. Any potential plans to alter the coyote/red fox density for the benefit of the swift fox should consider all alternatives (could include lethal methods, trapping and relocation, birth control, habitat modification and more). The option that has the least impact on the swift fox, the mixed-grass prairie ecosystem and other species should be chosen.

The SEA concluded that this recovery strategy will have many positive effects and not cause any important negative effects as long as the mitigation measures recommended are implemented, including any further assessments of actions identified as a result of research conducted in this recovery strategy such as any potential culling or species removal from a national park. Further information is presented in theStrategic Environmental Assessment of the Recovery Strategy for the Swift Fox (Vulpes velox) in Canada.

Recovery strategy for the Mormon Metalmark (Apodemia mormo) Prairie Population in Canada

In accordance with The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, 2004, a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act (SARA) recovery strategies. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The results of the SEA by K. Forrestall (2006) are summarized below.

This Mormon metalmark Prairie population recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Mormon metalmark (Apodemia mormo) through increasing knowledge of its habitat requirements and the additional conservation efforts for Mormon metalmark habitat. Improved habitat conservation efforts for other species that share some habitat with the Mormon metalmarks, such as the branched umbrella plant (Eriogonum pauciflorum), will be a positive residual effect of the recovery strategy. Additional positive effects on other species could include increasing the knowledge of threats to other species, potentially improving knowledge of other species in unsurveyed areas and an overall increase in the conservation of prairie species through comprehensive prairie conservation/endangered species planning initiatives.

The potential for important negative effects on other species or ecological processes is negligible given the highly specialized and localized habitat requirements of Mormon metalmarks as well as the non-destructive nature of the recommended actions. Any sampling of the species for genetic testing will require a permit and be subject to conditions as required under SARA.

Only three privately managed cattle ranches have known Mormon metalmarks on or near them and all are within the proposed Grasslands National Park boundaries. The ranch managers and relevant rural governments, as well as the Province of Saskatchewan (Saskatchewan Environment) were all provided copies of the draft strategy and given opportunity to provide comments. Environment Canada and The Bureau of Land Management, United States Department of Interior, the largest land management agency in the adjacent habitat in the United States, were also given a draft copy of the strategy and provided the opportunity to comment.

The SEA concluded that this recovery strategy would have several positive effects and not cause any significant negative effects. Further project-specific environmental assessments of actions identified as a result of research conducted in this recovery strategy may be required.

Recovery strategyfor the Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) (Great Lakes population) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004). The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk, and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species, and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is incorporated directly into the strategy, and is summarized here.

Due to the lack of evidence to confirm the presence, past or present, of a Great Lakes population of the Tiger Salamander in Canada, and because recovery is regarded as neither appropriate nor feasible, no further recovery action is contemplated at this time. Accordingly, this recovery strategy will have no effect on the environment.

Recovery strategy for the Black-footed Ferret (Mustela nigripes) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004). The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is not a separate document, but is incorporated directly into the recovery strategy and is summarized here.

This recovery strategy will benefit the environment by reintroducing and promoting the recovery of the black-footed ferret in an area it had historically occupied. The recovery strategy will also have indirect positive effects. Potential black-tailed prairie dog (Special Concern) colony expansion will increase habitat for species such as the Burrowing Owl (Endangered) and swift fox (Endangered) and increase prey abundance for species such as the Golden Eagle and Ferruginous Hawk (Special Concern). Potential negative effects as a result of the recovery strategy include increased disease potential, decreases in habitat such as sagebrush communities, and destruction of invertebrate communities. The importance of these effects is unknown. There will be significant mortality of black-tailed prairie dogs (Special Concern) due to direct predation by black-footed ferrets and there is also potential for ferret predation on Burrowing Owls (Endangered) and Greater Sage-Grouse (Endangered). However, it is believed that ferrets do not have population level effects on these species in areas of the U.S.

Mitigation of the potential negative effects on species at risk will be addressed by working cooperatively with the affected species recovery teams on a regular basis, and monitoring of ferret activities, diet and habitat use, as well as population monitoring of other species at risk in the reintroduction area. Effects on other species at risk will be closely evaluated and management strategies for the ferrets will be modified if any detrimental effects are detected. Some examples of mitigation measures for other associated species include quarantine and vaccination to reduce the spread of disease, and avoiding the expansion of prairie dog colonies in areas where rare plants occur. Strategies to address potential negative effects will be developed prior to implementing recovery actions and will be included in the ferret action plan. Taking these mitigation measures into account, it is concluded that the plan will not entail any important negative effects.

Recovery strategy for the Eastern Hog-Nosed Snake (Heterodon platirhinos) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004). The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is incorporated directly into the strategy and also summarized below. The SEA concluded that this strategy will clearly benefit the environment and other species through conservation, management, stewardship and research, and will not entail any important negative effects.

This Recovery Strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Eastern Hog-nosed Snake. Many associated species stand to benefit from the increased profiling and protection of the vegetation communities which support Hog-nosed Snakes, including dune grasslands, oak savannahs, and oak woodland. Examples are the endangered Pitcher’s Thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) and Piping Plover (Charadrius melodus); and the threatened Hill’s Thistle (Cirsium hillii). Habitat conservation efforts targeting the Hog-nosed will also benefit other at-risk snakes in Ontario, including the endangered Eastern Fox Snake (Elaphe gloydi) and the threatened Eastern Massasauga Rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus); and in its overlapping populations on the Norfolk Sand Plain, the endangered Gray Rat Snake (Elaphe spiloides). The priority strategies identified in the recovery strategy, when implemented, will also aid in the recovery of the relatively recently extirpated butterflies - - Karner Blue (Plebejus melissa samuelis) and Frosted Elfin (Callophrys irus).

Education initiatives in Ontario regarding persecution, collecting, habitat loss, and traffic mortality, will benefit Eastern Hog-nosed Snake. Often these are multi-species approaches, targeting other reptiles in particular, including several Species at Risk (e.g. Eastern Foxsnake, Milksnake (Lampropeltis triangulum)).

The potential for the strategy to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. The long-term persistence of Hog-nosed populations along the shore of Lake Erie could potentially have negative impacts on the threatened Fowler’s Toad (Bufo fowleri), although the much more common American Toad would be its primary prey.

Recovery strategy for the American Water-willow (Justicia americana) in Canada

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004), a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery strategies. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans and program proposals to support environmentally-sound decision making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself,but are also summarized below.

By promoting the recovery of the American Water-willow, this Recovery Strategy will clearly benefit the environment, contributing to:

  • a better understanding of the ecology of this species in Canada, of the habitat-related requirements of this species and of threats to its survival;
  • the protection and conservation of American Water-willow populations;
  • greater public awareness about this species and SARA and a greater sharing of information with affiliated partners.

There is little likelihood that the activities planned in order to meet the recovery strategy objectives will be harmful to the environment to any significant extent, for they are centred primarily on the protection and restoration of critical habitat, recovery of the species and public awareness. This recovery strategy describes the threats currently confronting the American Water-willow and its habitat, (section 1.5) existing knowledge gaps (section 1.7) and the population and distribution objectives (section 2.1) that are explicitly aimed at addressing these threats and filling in these gaps.

Furthermore, some activities might well benefit – though unintentionally – species that are not targeted under this strategy. It is in fact fieldwork (trampling) that presents the strongest risk for negatively impacting the environment; but, such effects can be avoided or at least kept to a minimum by employing known techniques and proper practices in the field.

Some potential recovery activities, such as augmentation of individuals in a population may entail performing an environmental assessment for each project under the provisions of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA, S.C. 1992, ch. 37).

In short, the SEA concluded that this strategy will clearly benefit the environment and will not result in any significant adverse effects.

Recovery strategy for Pitcher’s Thistle (Cirsium pitcheri) in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery strategies, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may inadvertently lead to effects in the natural environment beyond the intended benefits. The results of the SEA are summarized below and briefly outline the potential positive and negative environmental impacts as a result of the proposed recovery strategy and resultant mitigation.

The most effective methods of recovery will be to reduce or eliminate threats to the dune ecosystems that are the habitat of Pitcher's Thistle. This approach will seek to maintain dunes in a natural state, thus protecting the habitat for other dune species as well. By maintaining the processes that keep dunes dynamic, a variety of dune stages are maintained, providing sufficient habitat for many other species (at least 46 rare or at-risk species are known to occur on dunes on Lake Huron or Lake Superior in Ontario). Furthermore, most approaches proposed in this recovery strategy involve outreach, education, use of policy, as well as research, inventory, and monitoring, which have little or no environmental impact. In addition, recovery action planning will be coordinated with other recovery teams, further reducing the likelihood of negative impacts to any listed species-at-risk. No significant negative impacts to the natural environment are expected from this recovery strategy.

Specific activities within National Parks, such as population control of deer or geese, or removals of exotic species such as Common Reed (Phragmites australis), may require further assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA).

Recovery strategy for the Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus (Opuntia humifusa) in Canada

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004), a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery strategies. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making (see also Appendix 1).

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, primarily within the Effect on the Environment and other Species section, but are also summarized below.

Most broad strategies and approaches to recover the Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus are expected to either have no significant adverse impacts or to have a positive environmental effect on the Lake Erie Sand Spit Savannas ecosystem, as well as other species occupying those habitats. Proposed approaches oriented towards research, monitoring, protection and public education are expected to result in the return of a mosaic of vegetation communities, particularly Lake Erie Sand Spit Savannas, as well as Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus. Monitoring work may include assessments of cactus habitat, thereby increasing knowledge relating to both the ecosystem and closely associated species. Public awareness initiatives may assist in raising awareness of other species at risk and shared threats.

Negative environmental effects arising from this strategy will likely be confined to the use of vegetation management techniques as a tool to restore open habitats and to minimize or prevent succession to closed canopy habitats. Particularly, there may be potential adverse effects associated with fire management techniques. Effects could include potential loss of individuals, including Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus and other species at risk; potential damage to archaeological resources; potential loss of mature forest habitat cover and thicket and woodland habitats; loss of downed woody debris that provides important microhabitat for many Lake Erie Sand Spit Savannas species; potential displacement of existing vegetation if Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus is repatriated to historic locations; the potential disturbance of soil contaminants and potential impacts to visitor experience due to the control of off-trail activities. The potential loss of individuals from trampling and disturbance due to monitoring activities could also occur.

Mitigation measures to reduce or eliminate these impacts will require research on vegetation management techniques and their impact on Eastern Prickly Pear Cactus. The maintenance of a mosaic of vegetation communities of different age classes will require minimizing vegetation management activities so as not to include the entire habitat at once. Managing the timing of those activities could reduce disturbance to other species and to allow for “refuge” areas. Similarly, consultation with Parks Canada Archaeologists, education and coordination of staff participating in management and monitoring activities and increasing visitor awareness of those activities and its reasoning would further mitigate the above impacts.

Potential negative impacts and corresponding mitigations may be addressed in greater detail in project level environmental assessments for any habitat modification projects, prescribed burns, invasive species removals or shoreline alterations at Point Pelee National Park under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (1992, c. 37) (CEAA) and at Fish Point Provincial Nature Reserve under A Class Environmental Assessment for Provincial Parks and Conservation Reserves (2005). These environmental assessments would require follow-up to determine the success of the techniques implemented, and the accuracy of effects predicted for other species, ecosystem processes and the environment. This will allow for adaptive management at these sites, the mitigation of any environmental effects and continual adjustment and improvement of recovery efforts.

Recovery strategy for the Blanding's Turtle (Emydoidea blandingii), Nova Scotia Population, in Canada

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

Overall, it is anticipated that the approaches outlined in this recovery strategy will have a beneficial impact on non-target species (other species at risk and those not at risk), ecological processes, and the environment. Management is likely to include protection of wetland habitat. This has the potential to benefit many wetland species, including some that are at risk. In Nova Scotia, the distribution and habitats of Blanding's turtles overlap considerably with that of the Threatened eastern ribbonsnake. There are also a number of Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora species at risk that occur in similar wetlands. There are examples, such as the water pennywort, where the habitats of Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora species overlap with those of Blanding's turtles. Where other species at risk coexist with Blanding's turtles, recovery and conservation initiatives outlined in this strategy will be coordinated with other recovery teams. It will ensure that actions are mutually beneficial and not detrimental to other species at risk.

Stewardship actions, educational programs and awareness initiatives with landowners, Aboriginal organizations, and the general public; all levels of government; industry; and other audiences; will lead to increased understanding, appreciation of, and concrete action towards the conservation of wetlands and the recovery of species at risk in general. The Blanding's turtle, eastern ribbonsnake and Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora recovery teams regularly collaborate on a number of outreach projects. A best practices guide for landowners with species at risk on their property has been developed to help encourage stewardship of all wetland species at risk on private lands and inform landowners of ways to minimize their impacts on these species.

Recovery strategy for the Eastern Ribbonsnake (Thamnophis sauritus), Atlantic Population in Canada

In accordance with The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals (2004), a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies. The purpose of the SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally-sound decision making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is incorporated directly into the strategy and also summarized below.

Recovery objectives will focus primarily on addressing knowledge gaps (Section 4 of the recovery strategy). The need for further research into demography, habitat requirements, threats, and population trends was identified. This information will benefit eastern ribbonsnake (Thamnophis sauritus) recovery in Nova Scotia, and may also aid conservation of other ribbonsnake populations, including those in southern Ontario and southwestern Quebec. Increased knowledge and protection of habitat (Section 1.8 of the recovery strategy) will also benefit other species at risk (e.g., Blanding’s turtle [Emydoidea blandingii] and Redroot [Lachnanthes caroliana]). To minimize overlap and maximize recovery efforts, recovery of eastern ribbonsnake will be coordinated with the recovery efforts for Blanding’s turtle and Atlantic Coastal Plain Flora. The recovery strategy also proposes collaboration with Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) and Nova Scotia Fisheries and Aquaculture to monitor exotic and introduced fish (e.g., smallmouth bass [Micropterus dolomieui] and chain pickerel [Esox niger]). This will benefit competing native fish species (e.g., trout [Salvelinus sp.]) as well as trophic dynamics, including amphibian abundance. Actions aimed at stewardship and education may also benefit other snake species, in addition to commonly associated vegetation and other terrestrial and aquatic organisms. The potential impacts to other species as a result of eastern ribbonsnake management are provided in Section 6.6 of the recovery strategy. This recovery strategy will have several positive effects on other species and the environment, and no important negative effects are anticipated.

Recovery strategy for Rayless Goldfields

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

The small vernal pool where Rayless Goldfields occurs does not appear to play an important role for any at-risk plant or vertebrate species, so the approaches proposed in this document will have no significant direct impacts on existing populations of native plants or vertebrates. Further recovery actions in this small hydrologically isolated pool are unlikely to have any significant effect on the surrounding environment or ecological processes.

Recovery strategy for Dense-flowered Lupine

In accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals (2004), a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is incorporated directly into the strategy and also summarized below.

The greatest potential for environmental effects comes from fieldwork activities aimed at habitat restoration; however, these effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project level phase through proper field procedures and/or strong involvement of Parks Canada Agency and the Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (see section 2.6: "Effects on Other Species"). Some recovery strategy activities may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Dense-flowered Lupine, a natural component of biodiversity. Activities required to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects, as they are limited to habitat rehabilitation, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, improving knowledge of habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Dense-flowered Lupine will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for Rigid Apple Moss

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act recovery strategies, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals (2004). The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond their intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is incorporated directly into the strategy and also summarized below.

The greatest potential for effects on the environmental and species comes from fieldwork activities aimed at habitat inventory, monitoring, and management; however, these effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project level phase through proper field procedures and strong involvement of Parks Canada Agency and the Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (see the "Effects on other species" section in the federal text of this document). Some recovery strategy activities may require project-level environmental assessment, as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

This recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the protection of habitat for the Rigid Apple Moss. Activities to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects as they are limited to habitat protection, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, improving knowledge of habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration (see the "Approaches Recommended to Meet Recovery Objectives" section in Appendix 1).

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the Muhlenberg’s Centaury

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

The range of Muhlenberg's Centaury overlaps with a suite of other plants and invertebrates at risk, the totality of which comprise one of the most unique species assemblages known in Canada (GOERT 2002). Because locations for potential introductions of Muhlenberg's Centaury have not yet been determined, and because of the high concentrations of co-occurring species at risk in some locations, it is not possible to anticipate all of the possible positive and negative impacts stemming from recovery activities. However, many of these species are threatened by the same primary factors (i.e., development activities and introduced species) that threaten Muhlenberg's Centaury. Thus, most of the recovery activities proposed (e.g., protection and habitat restoration) are expected to have a net positive effect on non-target native species, communities, and their habitats.

Nevertheless, if not planned and implemented carefully, large-scale management actions, such as invasive species removal or the use of herbicides, may have a negative effect on other plants at risk (e.g., through trampling, poisoning, increased herbivory, and inadvertent dispersal of alien species). Trampling due to on-site recovery activities (e.g., surveys, research, restoration, and management) poses a threat to co-occurring at-risk species that occur in or near sites with Muhlenberg's Centaury or that are proposed for Muhlenberg's Centaury establishment. Further, augmenting populations with non-local genotypes may harm existing populations (McKay et al. 2005).

The potentially negative effects of recovery can be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or strong involvement of Parks Canada Agency and the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team. Further, all population augmentation/establishment must take a precautionary approach, and research should involve experimental establishment trials (Maslovat 2006). One approach to ensure that potential negative impacts of augmentation/establishment are minimized would be to select restoration/establishment sites that are already degraded to the point that they no longer support viable populations of other species at risk. Some recovery strategy activities may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

Actions taken to aid in the recovery of this species should, if conducted in an open, informative manner, provide benefits for all species at risk and their habitats by increasing public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, the need to maintain natural ecological processes, and the need to protect natural habitats from the effects of development. This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Muhlenberg's Centaury, a natural component of biodiversity. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Muhlenberg's Centaury will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat. The SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the White Meconella

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

This recovery strategy was evaluated for potential effects (positive and negative) on non-target species, natural communities, and/or natural processes. Important to note is that a number of other rare species (Table 7) have been reported in the vicinity of one or more extant populations of White Meconella. Efforts to recover the White Meconella are expected to benefit these co-existing rare species, as they share common threats such as encroachment by invasive alien plant species.

Table 7 - Co-occurring Rare Species
Species Common name Conservation Rank COSEWIC Status*
Butterflies
Erynnis propertius Propertius Duskywing G5 S2S3
Euphyes vestris Dun Skipper G5 S3 T
Plants
Agrostis pallens Dune Bentgrass G4G5 S3S4
Allium amplectens Slimleaf Onion G4 S3
Eurybia radulina Rough-leaved Aster G4G5 S1
Balsamorhiza deltoidea Deltoid Balsamroot G5 S1 E
Botrychium simplex Least Moonwort G5 S2S3
Clarkia amoena var. lindleyi Lindley's Farewell-to-Spring G5T5 S3
Entosthodon fasicularis Banded Cordmoss G4G5 S2S3 SC
Githopsis specularioides Common Bluecup G5 S2S3
Heterocodon rariflorum Rare-flowered Bluecup G5 S3
Idahoa scapigera Scalepod G5 S2
Lomatium dissectum var. dissectum Coastal Chocolate-tips G4T4 S1
Lotus unifoliolatus var. unifoliolatus Spanish-clover G5T5 S3
Lupinus lepidus Prairie Lupine G5 S1 E
Plagiobothrys tenellus Slender Popcornflower G4G5 S1 T
Rupertia physodes California-tea G4 S3
Sanicula bipinnatifida Purple Sanicle G5 S2 T
Packera macounii Macoun's Groundsel G5 S3
Sericocarpus rigidus White-top Aster G3 S2 SC
Viola howellii Howell's Violet G4 S2S3
Viola praemorsa ssp. praemorsa Yellow Montane Violet G5T3T5 S2 E
Yabea microcarpa California Hedge-parsley G5? S1S2
*Status: E = Endangered, T = Threatened, SC = Special Concern, S-ranks assigned as per B.C. Conservation Data Centre and NatureServe.

Although it is not feasible to discuss all of the potential species interactions that may result from implementation of this recovery strategy, the following specific positive effects can be identified:

  • Protection of habitat will in general reduce shared threats and disturbance for co-existing species and associated habitat.
  • Increased public education and awareness may reduce harmful activities in sites supporting this and other species at risk.
  • Management of invasive alien plant species may restore habitat for other plant species at risk and native species in general.

While several positive effects on other species and the environment are expected from implementing the overall strategy for the recovery of the White Meconella, there is potential for negative effects on non-target species, natural communities, and/or natural processes if sound conservation approaches are not applied. Any on-site activities (surveys, research, or management) to aid recovery of White Meconella could potentially result in trampling or disturbance of co-occurring species, unless care is taken to avoid damage to plants and animals. Further, if not planned and implemented carefully, large-scale management actions, such as invasive alien plant removal or the use of herbicides, may have a negative effect on other plants at risk (e.g., through trampling, increased herbivory, inadvertent dispersal of invasive alien species, potential colonization of newly created gaps by other invasive alien plants, and harm from improper herbicide application) and the environment (runoff from herbicide application).

The potentially negative effects of recovery can be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Further, all population augmentation/establishment should take a precautionary approach, and research should involve experimental translocation trials (Maslovat 2006). One approach to ensure that potential negative impacts of translocation are minimized would be to select restoration/translocation sites that are already degraded to the point that they no longer support viable populations of other species at risk. Some recovery strategy activities may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

Actions taken to aid in the recovery of this species should, if conducted in an open, informative manner, provide benefits for all species at risk and their habitats through increased public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, the need to maintain natural ecological processes, and the need to protect natural habitats from the effects of development. This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the White Meconella, a natural component of biodiversity. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for White Meconella will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat. The SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the Lindley’s False Silverpuffs in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

Lindley's False Silverpuffs overlaps with a suite of rare and at risk plants and invertebrates found in Garry Oak and associated ecosystems (GOERT 2002) (Table 7). Most recovery activities proposed for Lindley's False Silverpuffs (e.g., site protection, and threat mitigation) can be expected to have a net positive effect on the habitat of these other non-target species and communities. Nevertheless, it is possible that specific management actions carried out during the course of Lindley's False Silverpuffs recovery (e.g., weed removal, shrub clearing, population augmentation, and species translocations) could have unforeseen collateral impacts on co-occurring non-target species. While probably slight, the chances of negative impacts accruing due to recovery activities must be duly considered. One method of mitigating such negative effects is to monitor the results of Lindley's False Silverpuffs management. In keeping with the principles of adaptive management, an important component of recovery action planning will be anticipating and monitoring potential collateral impacts (both positive and negative) on non-target species, communities, and ecological processes.

Table 7 . Rare species known to occur with Lindley's False Silverpuffs and their provincial and federal status. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011, NatureServe 2010.

Common name Scientific name British Columbia provincial rank COSEWIC designation SARA status
Erect Pygmyweed Crassula connata var. connata S2 Red Not assessed Not assessed
California Hedge-parsley Yabea microcarpa S1S2 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Slender Popcornflower Plagiobothrys tenellus S1 Red Threatened Threatened
Yellow Montane Violet Viola praemorsa ssp. praemorsa S2 Red Endangered Endangered
Geyer's Onion Allium geyeri S2S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Nuttall's Quillwort Isoetes nuttallii S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Slimleaf Onion Allium amplectens S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
White Meconella Meconella oregana S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Rigid Apple Moss Bartramia stricta S2 Red Endangered Endangered

Potentially negative effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project level phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Some recovery strategy activities may require project level environmental assessment, as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Lindley's False Silverpuffs, a natural component of biodiversity. Activities required to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects as they are limited to habitat rehabilitation, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, improving knowledge on habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration. In addition, it is likely that careful habitat restoration for Lindley's False Silverpuffs will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the Fragrant Popcornflower in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

The small vernally moist depression where Fragrant Popcornflower was last observed does not appear to play an important role for any other native plant or vertebrate species. The recovery approaches proposed for this site are not expected to have any significant direct impact on existing populations of native plants, animals or surrounding habitat. Elsewhere, the historical range of Fragrant Popcornflower overlaps with that of other plants and invertebrates at risk (GOERT 2002). Because potential (re)introduction locations for Fragrant Popcornflower have not yet been determined, and because of the large number of plant taxa at risk and the high concentrations of rare species at some locations, it is not possible to anticipate all of the possible positive and negative impacts stemming from recovery activities. However, many of these species and their required habitat are threatened by the same primary factors (i.e., development activities, invasive alien species) that threaten Fragrant Popcornflower. Thus, most of the recovery activities proposed (e.g., protection, habitat restoration) are expected to have a net positive effect on non-target native species, communities and their habitat. In addition, recovery activities must be carefully planned and implemented to ensure mitigation of potential negative effects on other species at risk.

Recovery strategy for the Foothill Sedge

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

Foothill Sedge tends to occur in the same habitats as many other species at risk found in Garry Oak and associated ecosystems (Table 4). Most recovery activities proposed for Foothill Sedge (e.g., site protection and threat mitigation) can be expected to have a net positive effect on the habitat of these other non-target species and communities. Nevertheless, it is possible that specific management actions carried out during the course of Foothill Sedge recovery (e.g., invasive alien plant species removal, shrub clearing, mowing, population augmentation, or species translocations) could have unforeseen collateral effects on co-occurring non-target species and ecosystems. While probably slight, the chances of negative effects accruing due to recovery activities must be duly considered. In keeping with the principles of adaptive management, an important component of recovery action planning will be anticipating and monitoring potential collateral effects (both positive and negative) on non-target species, communities, and ecological processes.

To ensure that recovery actions for one species do not unduly hinder the recovery of another, collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies is essential.

Table 4. Partial list of non-target plant species at risk potentially affected by recovery activities.

Species Provincial rank COSEWIC status SARA schedule GOERT or SARA recovery planning document potentially affected
Allium amplectens
Slim-leaf Onion
S3 Blue Not assessed Yes
Bidens amplissima
Vancouver Island Beggarticks
S3 Blue SC 1 Yes
Callitriche marginata
Winged Water-starwort
S1 Red Status pending Yes
Centaurium muehlenbergii
Muhlenberg's Centaury
S1 Red E Yes
Crassula connata var. connata
Erect Pygmyweed
S2 Red Not assessed Yes
Epilobium densiflorum
Dense Spike-primrose
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Helenium autumnale var. grandiflorum
Mountain Sneezeweed
S2S3 Blue Not assessed No
Juncus kelloggii
Kellogg's Rush
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Limnanthes macounii
Macoun's Meadowfoam
S2 Red T 1 Yes
Lotus formosissimus
Seaside Birds-foot Lotus
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Lotus pinnatus
Bog Bird's-foot Trefoil
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Minuartia pusilla
Dwarf Sandwort
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Orthocarpus bracteosus
Rosy Owl-clover
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Psilocarphus elatior
Tall woolly-heads
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Ranunculus alismifolius var. alismifolius
Water-plantain Buttercup
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Ranunculus californicus
California Buttercup
S1 Red E Yes
Sanicula bipinnatifida
Purple Sanicle
S2 Red T 1 Yes
Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor
Bearded Owl-clover
S1 Red E 1 Yes
Recovery strategy for the Coast Microseris in Canada

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

The range of Coast Microseris overlaps with a suite of other rare and at risk plants an invertebrates, the totality of which comprise one of the most unique species assemblages known in Canada (GOERT 2002; Table 7). Actions taken to recover Coast Microseris should also benefit these species by improving habitat for them. Restoration of the habitat of Coast Microseris will be beneficial to species associated with this habitat, which are also affected by encroachment of woody species, competition from invasive alien species, and organic matter build up. Actions taken to aid in the recovery of this species should, if conducted in an appropriate manner (e.g., in an open, informative manner), provide benefits for all at risk species and habitats. This can be accomplished by increasing public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, of the need to maintain natural ecological processes (e.g., if fire is identified as being a component of the management for some locations that Coast Microseris occurs), and of the need to protect natural habitats from the impacts of adjacent developments.

However, actions to assist in the recovery of Coast Microseris could have negative effects other species at risk if the actions result in excessive disturbance of the site (e.g., when removing invasive alien species and planted / encroaching woody species). Any on-site activity has the potential to affect other species at risk through trampling or the inadvertent translocation of invasive alien species seeds; therefore, care must be taken to avoid indirect effects. If fire is identified as being a component of the restoration of specific sites that Coast Microseris occurs, care must be taken to ensure that the natural disturbance is contained within a targeted area and that the fire does not inadvertently promote the growth of an invasive alien species.

These potentially negative effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project level phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Some recovery strategy activities may require project level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

Table 7 . Rare species known to occur within the Canadian range of Coast Microseris and their provincial and federal status. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011, NatureServe 2010.

Scientific name Common name B.C. provincial rank COSEWIC designation SARA status
Allium amplectens Slimleaf Onion S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Anagallis minima Chaffweed S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Alopecurus carolinianus Carolina Meadow-foxtail S2 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Callitriche marginata Winged Water-starwort S1 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Carex pansa Sand-dune Sedge S2S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Carex tumulicola Foothill Sedge S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Castilleja victoriae Victoria owl-clover S1 Red Endangered Not assessed
Centaurium muehlenbergii Muhlenberg's Centaury S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Crassula connata var. connata Erect Pygmyweed S2 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Clarkia amoena var. lindleyi Farewell-to-spring S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Dryopteris arguta Coastal wood fern S2S3 Blue Special Concern Special Concern
Heterocodon rariflorum Heterocodon S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Isoetes nuttallii Nuttall's Quillwort S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Limnanthes macounii Macoun's Meadow-foam S2 Red Threatened Threatened
Lomatium grayi Gray's Desert-parsley S1 Red Threatened Threatened
Lotus formosissimus Seaside Birds-foot Trefoil S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Lotus unifoliolatus var. unifoliolatus Spanish-clover S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Minuartia pusilla Dwarf Sandwort S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Navarretia intertexta Needle-leaved Navarretia S2 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Plagiobothrys figuratus Fragrant Popcornflower S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Psilocarphus elatior Tall Woolly-heads S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Sanicula arctopoides Snake-root Sanicle S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Sanicula bipinnatifida Purple Sanicle S2 Red Threatened Threatened
Trifolium depauperatum var. depauperatum Poverty clover S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor Bearded owl-clover S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Coenonympha tullia insulana Common ringlet insulana subspecies S1 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Erynnis propertius Propertius Duskywing S2S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Euphydryas editha taylori Taylor's Checkerspot S1 Red Endangered Endangered

This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Coast Microseris, a natural component of biodiversity. Activities required to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects, as they are limited to habitat rehabilitation, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, improving knowledge on habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Coast Microseris will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the Brook Spike-primrose

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible effects on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

Actions taken to recover Brook Spike-primrose should benefit other specialist species by improving habitat for them. Restoration of Craigflower Meadow will be beneficial to all the specialist species associated with this habitat and affected by the encroachment of woody species, competition from invasive alien species, and organic matter build up. Other rare species known to occur with Brook Spike-primrose include:

  • Dense Spike-primrose (Epilobium densiflorum)
  • Spanish-clover (Lotus unifoliolatus)
  • Needleleaf Navarretia (Navarretia intertexta)

Actions taken to aid in the recovery of this species should, if conducted in an open, informative manner, provide benefits for all species at risk and their habitats by increasing public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, the need to maintain natural ecological processes (i.e., if fire is identified as being a component of the management of Craigflower Meadow), and the need to protect natural habitats from the impacts of adjacent developments.

However, actions to assist in the recovery of Brook Spike-primrose could negatively affect other species at risk if the actions result in excessive disturbance of the site (e.g., when removing invasive alien species and planted / encroaching woody species). Any on-site activity has the potential to affect other species at risk through trampling or the inadvertent translocation of invasive alien species seeds; therefore, care must be taken to avoid indirect effects. If fire is identified as being a necessary component of the restoration of Craigflower Meadow, care must be taken to ensure that the natural disturbance is contained within the meadow and that the fire does not inadvertently promote the growth of an invasive alien species.

These potentially negative effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Some recovery strategy activities may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Brook Spike-primrose, a natural component of biodiversity. Activities required to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects as they are limited to habitat rehabilitation, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, improving knowledge on habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Brook Spike-primrose will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the Dense Spike-primrose

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible effects on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

This recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Dense Spike-primrose. Activities to meet population and distribution objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects, as they are limited to habitat protection and restoration, fostering stewardship and increasing public awareness, improving knowledge of habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration.

The recovery strategy identifies current threats (Section 4) to the Dense Spike-primrose and its habitat. Population and distribution objectives clearly focus on resolving these threats and filling information gaps. The greatest potential for negative environmental effects comes from field activities aimed at habitat restoration, invasive alien species removal, and herbicide application (if required). For example, reintroduction attempts may spread invasive alien species, increase soil disturbance, or increase trampling in sensitive habitats where other rare species may live in close proximity to Dense Spike-primrose (e.g., Macoun’s Meadowfoam (Limnanthes macounii) at Rocky Point; and Brook Spike-Primrose (Epilobium torreyi), Spanish-clover (Lotus unifoliolatus), and Needleleaf Navarretia (Navarretia intertexta) at Thetis Lake Regional Park). However, these effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies.

Some recovery strategy activities, such as species establishment and habitat restoration, may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act. In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will have several positive effects on the environment and other species. No important negative effects are expected.

Recovery strategy for Hill’s Pondweed

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that plans may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, but are also summarized below.

Effects on other species are expected to be beneficial, and no negative impacts are predicted. The management of Hill's Pondweed will mostly involve policy and outreach steps. As well, since the goal is to maintain existing sites and populations, there will be very little management in the actual habitat. The primary focus will be work to ensure natural, dynamic wetland processes such as variable water levels, beaver activity, successional changes in vegetation, etc. continue to function naturally. Management activities that maintain wetland integrity and water chemistry will benefit many other species in the same habitat.

This management plan will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the conservation of Hill's Pondweed. The potential for the plan to inadvertently lead to adverse effects on other species was considered. The SEA concluded that this plan will clearly benefit the environment and will not entail any significant adverse effects. The reader should refer to the following sections of the document in particular: Conservation Measures (6.3); Habitat and Biological Needs (3.3.1); and Ecological Role (3.3.2).

Recovery strategy for the California Buttercup in Canada
STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT STATEMENT

The majority of the proposed recovery activities will lead to better site protection, broader public appreciation of rare species, reduced human impacts and reduced pressure from non-native species. Accordingly, they will have positive effects on most non-target native species, natural communities and ecological processes. Recovery activities aimed to reduce the impacts associated with encroachment from native trees and shrubs (see section 4.2.2, Changes in ecological dynamics or natural processes ), which have occurred as the result of fire suppression, will have negative impacts on the targeted woody species themselves as well as plant and animal species which rely upon them.

A number of species at risk and provincially rare species occur within or adjacent to populations of California Buttercup (Table 7). Most recovery activities proposed for California Buttercup can be expected to have a net positive effect on the habitat of these other non-target species and communities. Nevertheless, it is possible that specific management actions carried out during the course of California Buttercup recovery (e.g., weed removal, shrub clearing, population augmentation, and species translocations) could have unforeseen collateral impacts on co-occurring non-target species. While probably slight, the chances of negative impacts accruing due to recovery activities must be duly considered. One method of mitigating such negative effects is to monitor the results of California Buttercup management. In keeping with the principles of adaptive management, an important component of recovery action planning will be anticipating, monitoring and mitigating collateral impacts (both positive and negative) on non-target species, communities, and ecological processes.

Table7. Partial list of species at risk and vulnerable species potentially affected by Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (GOERT) and/or SARA recovery activities. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011, NatureServe 2011.
Species and Common Name British Columbia provincial rank COSEWIC designation SARA status
Allium amplectens
Slim-leaf Onion
S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Callitriche marginata
Winged Water-starwort
S1 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Castilleja levisecta
Golden Paintbrush
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Castilleja victoriae
Victoria's Owl-clover
S1 Red Endangered Not assessed
Coenonympha tullia insulana
Common Ringlet - insulana subspecies
S1Red Not assessed Not assessed
Entosthodon fascicularis
Banded Cord Moss
S2S3 Blue Special Concern Special Concern
Limnanthes macounii
Macoun's Meadowfoam
S2 Red Threatened Threatened
Lomatium dissectum var. dissectum
Fernleaf Desert-parsley
S1 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Lotus formosissimus
Seaside Birds-foot Lotus
S1 Red Status pending Not assessed
Lupinus densiflorus
Dense-flowered Lupine
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Orthocarpus bracteosus
Rosy Owl-clover
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Sanicula arctopoides
Bear's-foot Sanicle
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Sanicula bipinnatifida
Purple Sanicle
S2 Red Threatened Threatened
Sericocarpus rigidus
White-top Aster
S2 Red Special Concern Special Concern
Silene scouleri ssp. grandis
Coastal Scouler's Catchfly
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor
Bearded Owl-clover
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Recovery strategy for the Macoun's Meadowfoam in Canada
STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT STATEMENT

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

The majority of the proposed recovery activities will lead to better site protection, broader public appreciation of rare species, reduced human impacts, and reduced pressure from invasive alien species. Accordingly, they will have positive effects on most non-target native species, natural communities, and ecological processes. Recovery activities aimed to reduce the impacts associated with encroachment from native trees and shrubs, which have occurred as the result of fire suppression, will have negative impacts on the woody species targeted as well as plant and animal species which rely upon them.

A number of species at risk and provincially rare species occur within or adjacent to populations of Macoun's Meadowfoam (e.g., Table 5). Most recovery activities proposed for Macoun's Meadowfoam can be expected to have a net positive effect on the habitat of these other non-target species and communities. Nevertheless, it is possible that specific management actions carried out during the course of Macoun's Meadowfoam recovery (e.g., weed removal, shrub clearing, and population augmentation) could have unforeseen impacts on co-occurring non-target species. While probably slight, the chances of negative impacts accruing due to recovery activities must be duly considered. One method of mitigating such negative effects is to monitor the results of Macoun's Meadowfoam management. In keeping with the principles of adaptive management, an important component of recovery action planning will be anticipating, monitoring, and mitigating collateral impacts (both positive and negative) on non-target species, communities, and ecological processes.

The potentially negative effects of recovery can also be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Further, all population augmentation should take a precautionary approach. Some recovery strategy activities may require a project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

Table5. Partial list of species at risk and vulnerable species near Macoun's Meadowfoam populations. These species could be affected by certain recovery activities. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011, NatureServe 2011.
Species and Common Name British Columbia provincial rank COSEWIC designation SARA status
Castilleja ambigua
Paintbrush Owl-clover
S2S3 Blue Not assessed Not assessed
Crassula connata
Erect Pygmyweed
S2 Red Not assessed Not assessed
Lotus formosissimus
Seaside Birds-foot Lotus
S1 Red Status pending Not assessed
Lupinus densiflorus
Dense-flowered Lupine
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Microseris bigelovii
Coast Microseris
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Orthocarpus bracteosus
Rosy Owl-clover
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Sanicula arctopoides
Bear's-foot Sanicle
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Ranunculus californicus
California Buttercup
S1 Red Endangered Endangered
Triphysaria versicolor ssp. Versicolor
Bearded Owl-clover
S1 Red Endangered Endangered

Actions taken to aid in the recovery of Macoun's Meadowfoam should, if conducted in an open, informative manner, provide benefits for other species at risk and their habitats through increased public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, the need to maintain natural ecological processes, and the need to protect natural habitats from the effects of development. This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Macoun's Meadowfoam, a natural component of biodiversity. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Macoun's Meadowfoam will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat. The SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for Oregon Lupine in Canada
STRATEGIC ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT STATEMENT

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan, and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy's goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible effects on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

Actions taken to aid in the recovery of this species should, if conducted in an open, informative manner, provide benefits for all species at risk and their habitats by increasing public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, the need to maintain natural ecological processes, and the need to protect natural habitats from the effects of recreation.

However, actions to assist in the recovery of Oregon Lupine could negatively affect other species at risk in the Garry Oak Ecosystems (Table 5). Any on-site activity has the potential to affect other species at risk through trampling or the inadvertent translocation of invasive alien plant seeds; therefore, care must be taken to avoid indirect effects. Further, some actions such as removal of invasive alien plants or encroaching woody species can result in significant disturbance. If fire is identified as being a necessary component of restoration care must be taken to ensure that the natural disturbance is contained and that the fire does not inadvertently promote the growth of an invasive alien plant.

Oregon Lupine itself may have effects on other species. In particular, Garry Oak ecosystems with rare Lupinus species ( e.g., Lupinus densiflorus and Lupinus lepidus) should be avoided as reintroduction sites until the risk of hybridization has been determined. L. lepidus has been extirpated from the historical range of Oregon Lupine but may be reintroduced in the future. It would be prudent to observe how Oregon Lupine behaves in an experimental population to ensure it does not out-compete other native species or negatively impact native plant communities. After potential sites are identified, a more thorough assessment of the effects of reintroducing Oregon Lupine to Canada area will be possible.

Table 5. Partial list of species at risk and vulnerable species that could be affected by recovery activities. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2012, NatureServe 2012.
Scientific Name Common NameProvincial ListConservation RankCOSEWIC Status
Coenonympha california insulana (Coenonympha tullia insulana) Common Ringlet, insulana subspecies Red G5T3T4S1 Not Assessed
Entosthodon fascicularis Banded Cord-moss Blue G4G5 S2S3 Special Concern
Syntrichia laevipila (Tortula laevipila var. laevipila and T. laevipila var. meridionalis) Twisted Oak Moss Blue GNR S2S3 Special Concern
Contia tenuis Sharp-tailed Snake Red G5S1 Endangered
Pituophis catenifer catenifer Pacific Gopher Snake (Gopher Snake, catenifer subspecies) Red G5T5SX Extirpated
Allium amplectens Slimleaf Onion Blue G4S3 Not Assessed
Allium geyeri var. tenerum Geyer’s Onion Blue G4G5T3T5S2S3 Not Assessed
Alopecurus carolinianus Carolina Meadow-foxtail Red G5S2 Not Assessed
Balsamorhiza deltoidea Deltoid Balsamroot Red G5S1 Endangered
Callitriche marginata Winged Water-starwort Red G4S2S3 Not Assessed
Carex tumulicola Foothill Sedge Red G4S2 Endangered
Castilleja levisecta Golden Paintbrush Red G1S1 Endangered
Castilleja victoriae Victoria Owl-clover Red G1S1 Endangered
Centaurium muehlenbergii Muhlenberg’s Centaury Red G5?S1 Endangered
Crassula connata var. connata Erect Pygmyweed Red G5TNRS2 Candidate
Heterocodon rariflorum Heterocodon Blue G5S3 Not Assessed
Idahoa scapigera Scalepod Red G5S2 Not Assessed
Isoetes nuttallii Nuttall’s Quillwort Blue G4? Not Assessed
Juncus kelloggii Kellogg’s Rush Red G3?S1 Endangered
Limnanthes macounii Macoun’s Meadowfoam Red G2S2 Threatened
Lomatium dissectum var. dissectum Fern-leaved Desert-parsley Red G4T4S1 Not Assessed
Lotus formosissimus Seaside Birds-foot Lotus (Seaside Bird’s-foot Trefoil) Red G4S1 Endangered
Lotus unifoliolatus var. unifoliolatus Spanish-clover Blue G5T5 S3 Not Assessed
Lupinus densiflorus var. densiflorus Dense-flowered Lupine Red G5T4 S1 Endangered
Microseris bigelovii Coast Microseris Red G4S1 Endangered
Orthocarpus bracteosus Rosy Owl-clover Red G3? S1 Endangered
Piperia elegans Elegant Rein Orchid Yellow G4S3S4 Not Assessed
Plagiobothrys tenellus Slender Popcornflower Red G4G5S1 Threatened
Psilocarphus elatior Tall Woolly-heads Red G4QS1 Endangered
Polygonum paronychia Black Knotweed Blue G5S3 Not Assessed
Psilocarphus tenellus var. tenellus Slender Woolly-heads Blue G4T4S3 Not at Risk
Ranunculus alismifolius var. alismifolius Water-plantain Buttercup Red G5T5S1 Endangered
Ranunculus californicus California Buttercup Red G5S1 Endangered
Sanicula arctopoides Bear’s-foot Sanicle (Snake-root Sanicle) Red G5S1 Endangered
Sanicula bipinnatifida Purple Sanicle Red G5S2 Endangered
Sericocarpus rigidus (Aster curtus) White-top Aster Red G3S2 Special Concern
Silene scouleri ssp. grandis Coastal Scouler’s Catchfly (Scouler’s Campion) Red G5TNR S1 Endangered
Trifolium depauperatum var. depauperatum Poverty Clover Blue G5T5?S3 Not Assessed
Trifolium dichotomum Macrae’s Clover Blue G4?S2S3 Not Assessed
Triphysaria versicolor ssp. versicolor Bearded Owl-clover Red G5T5S1 Endangered
Triteleia howellii Howell’s Triteleia Red G3G4S1 Endangered
Viola praemorsa ssp. praemorsa Yellow Montane Violet Red G5T3T5S2 Endangered

Potential negative effects of recovery can be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Some recovery strategy activities may require project-level environmental assessment as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Oregon Lupine and its habitat, both natural components of biodiversity in Canada. Activities required to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects as they are limited to conducting habitat mapping and inventory, habitat rehabilitation, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, and improving knowledge on habitat requirements and population threats. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Oregon Lupine will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for Gray’s Desert-parsley in Canada

Strategic Environmental Assessment Statement

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy's goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

The range of Gray’s Desert-parsley overlaps with a suite of other rare and at risk plants and invertebrates, the totality of which comprise one of the most unique species assemblages known in Canada (GOERT 2002, Table 6). Actions taken to recover Gray’s Desert-parsley should also benefit these species by improving habitat for them. Restoration of the habitat of Gray’s Desert-parsley will be beneficial to species associated with this habitat, which are also affected by competition from invasive alien plants, grazing pressures, and/or recreational activities. Actions taken to aid in the recovery of this species should, if conducted in an appropriate manner (e.g., in an open, informative manner), provide benefits for all at risk species and habitats. This can be accomplished by increasing public awareness of the negative environmental consequences associated with invasive alien species, the threats recreational activities can pose to species at risk, the need to maintain natural ecological processes (e.g., if fire is identified as being a component of the management for some locations that Gray’s Desert-parsley occurs), and of the need to protect natural habitats from the impacts of adjacent developments.

However, actions to assist in the recovery of Gray’s Desert-parsley could negatively impact other species at risk if the actions result in excessive disturbance of the Gray’s Desert-parsley habitat (e.g., when removing invasive alien plants or installing fencing to exclude grazers). Any on-site activity has the potential to affect other species at risk through trampling or the inadvertent translocation of invasive alien plant seeds; therefore, care must be taken to avoid indirect impacts. If fire is identified as being a necessary component of the restoration of habitat at some locations where Gray’s Desert-parsley occurs, care must be taken to ensure that the natural disturbance is contained within a targeted area and the fire does not inadvertently promote the growth of an invasive alien plant species.

Table 6. Partial list of rare species known to occur within the Canadian range of Gray’s Desert-parsley and potentially affected by recovery strategies. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2011; NatureServe 2010.
Scientific Name Common Name B. C. provincial rank* COSEWIC status SARA Status Location Probability of being affected
Allium amplectens Slimleaf Onion S3 Not assessed Not assessed Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Possible
Callophrys mossii mossii Moss' Elfin S2S3 Not assessed Not assessed Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Unlikely
Clarkia purpurea ssp. quadrivulnera Small-flowered Godetia S1 Upcoming assessment Not assessed Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Unlikely
Entosthodon fascicularis Banded Cord-moss S2S3 Special Concern Special Concern Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Unlikely
Erynnis propertius Propertius Duskywing S2S3 Not assessed Not assessed Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Galiano Island Unlikely
Idahoa scapigera Scalepod S2 Not assessed Not assessed Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Possible
Lomatium dissectum var. dissectum Fern-leaved Desert-parsley S1 Not assessed Not assessed Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Possible
Plagiobothrys tenellus Slender Popcornflower S1 Threatened Threatened Galiano Island Unlikely
Syntrichia laevipila Twisted Oak Moss S2S3 Special Concern Special Concern Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Unlikely
Viola praemorsa ssp. praemorsa Yellow Montane Violet S2 Endangered Endangered Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Unlikely
Yabea microcarpa California Hedge-parsley S1S2 Not assessed Not assessed Mount Maxwell Maxwell Point Unlikely except possible at Maxwell Point.

* NatureServe Conservation ranks are based on a one to five scale, ranging from critically imperilled (1) to demonstrably secure (5).

The potential for negative effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project level phase through proper field procedures and/or strong collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. Some recovery strategy activities may require project level environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. Any activities found to require project-level environmental assessments will be assessed at that time pursuant to the provisions of the Act.

This recovery strategy benefits the environment by promoting the conservation and recovery of the Gray’s Desert-parsley, a natural component of biodiversity. Activities required to meet recovery objectives are unlikely to result in any important negative environmental effects, as they are limited to habitat rehabilitation, research activities, fostering stewardship, increasing public awareness, improving knowledge on habitat requirements and population threats, and conducting habitat/species mapping, inventory, and restoration. In addition, it is likely that habitat restoration for Gray’s Desert-parsley will benefit other co-occurring native species which occupy the same habitat.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the Slender Popcornflower (Plagiobothrys tenellus) in Canada

September 4, 2015

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy's goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

This recovery strategy was evaluated for potential effects (positive and negative) on non-target species, natural communities, and/or natural processes. Important to note is that a number of other rare species (Table 7) have been reported in the vicinity of one or more Slender Popcornflower populations and efforts to recover the Slender Popcornflower may benefit these nearby rare species because they share common threats such as encroachment by native and invasive alien plants.

Table 7. Partial list of species at risk and vulnerable species potentially affected by Garry Oak Ecosystem Recovery Team (GOERT) and/or SARA recovery activities. Sources: B.C. Conservation Data Centre 2012, NatureServe 2012.
Species and Common Name British Columbia provincial rank COSEWIC designation
White Meconella
Meconella oregana
S1 Red Endangered
Purple Sanicle
Sanicula bipinnatifida
S2 Red Threatened
California Hedge-parsley
Yabea microcarpa
S1S2 Red Not assessed
Scalepod
Idahoa scapigera
S2 Red Not assessed
Macrae's Clover
Trifolium dichotomum
S2S3 Blue Not assessed
Banded Cord-moss
Entosthodon fascicularis
S2S3 Blue Special Concern
Small-flowered Godetia
Clarkia purpurea ssp. quadrivulnera
S1 Red Candidate
Spanish-clover
Lotus unifoliolatus var. unifoliolatus
S3 Blue Not assessed

Although it is not feasible to discuss all of the potential species interactions that may result from implementation of this recovery strategy, the following specific positive effects can be identified:

  • Protection of habitat will, in general, reduce shared threats for co-existing species and associated habitat.
  • Increased public education and awareness will help reduce harmful activities in locations supporting this and other species at risk.
  • Management of encroaching plants will restore habitat for other plant species at risk and native woodland species in general.

Overall the strategy for the recovery of the Slender Popcornflower is positive; however, there is the potential for negative effects on non-target species, natural communities, and/or natural processes if sound conservation approaches are not applied. Sound conservation approaches include:

  • Carefully planning and implementing large-scale management actions, such as vegetation removal, use of herbicides, or reintroduction of disturbance. These actions may have a negative effect on other plants at risk (e.g., through trampling, increased herbivory, inadvertent dispersal of invasive alien plants during disposal, potential colonization of newly created gaps by other invasive alien plants, and harm from improper herbicide application, or disturbance) and the environment (e.g., runoff from herbicide application).
  • Management of all restoration activities (surveys, research, and management) to avoid trampling, damage, or disturbance of co-occurring or nearby plants and animals, particularly other species at risk.

Potential negative effects can be mitigated or eliminated at the project implementation phase through proper field procedures and/or collaboration with key conservation partners such as the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team and appropriate government agencies. If sound conservation practices are applied (for example following practices outlined in the Garry Oak Ecosystems Recovery Team Decision Support Tool for Invasive Species Removal) the risk of important negative effects to other species during recovery efforts is low.

In summary, the SEA process has concluded that this recovery strategy will likely have several positive effects on the environment and other species. There are no obvious adverse environmental effects anticipated with the implementation of this recovery strategy.

Recovery strategy for the Northern Saw-whet Owl brooksi subspecies (Aegolius acadicus brooksi) in Canada
Strategic Environmental Assessment Statement

Appendix A: Effects on the Environment and Other Species

In accordance with The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals, 2004, a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all Species at Risk Act (SARA) recovery strategies. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. Environmental effects, including impacts to non-target species and the environment, were considered during recovery planning. The SEA is not a separate document, but is incorporated directly into the recovery strategy and is summarized here.

This recovery strategy will clearly benefit the environment by promoting the recovery of the Northern Saw-whet Owl, brooksi subspecies (Aegolius acadicus brooksi) through addressing knowledge gaps associated with population size, dispersal / seasonal distribution, and suitable habitat (short term), and reduction / mitigation of threats and maintenance of sufficient habitat on the landscape (long term).

The SEA concluded that this recovery strategy would have several positive effects and not cause any important negative effects. Other wildlife with similar habitat requirements would stand to benefit from this recovery strategy. Further project-specific environmental assessments of actions identified as a result of research conducted in this recovery strategy, may be required.

The potential for important negative effects from this recovery strategy on other species or ecological processes is negligible.

Recovery Strategy for the Massasauga (Sistrurus catenatus) in Canada
Strategic Environmental Assessment Statement

Appendix A: Effects on the Environment and Other Species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that strategies may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process based on national guidelines directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the strategy itself, but are also summarized below in this statement.

In general, the strategies and approaches prescribed for the recovery of the Massasauga are expected to have no significant adverse impacts. Most actions are expected to have a positive environmental effect on the environments in which the Massasauga is found, as well as on the other species occupying those areas. Recovery approaches focus on resolving and/or mitigating threats to the Massasauga and its habitat (habitat loss or degradation, road mortality, discriminate killings, human disturbance of individuals, small population size, and the pet trade – section 4.2). Approaches aimed at meeting the population and distribution objectives (section 6.2) are expected to benefit the Massasauga and have overall benefits to the broad range of natural communities (e.g. forests, wetlands, grasslands, alvars) and the variety of landscapes, ranging from largely natural, forested landscapes, to predominantly agricultural, to predominantly urban, which the species occupies.

Positive impacts related to other wildlife species include reduced road mortalities through the implementation of ecopassages or fencing to help guide movement of species across road barriers. Promotion of alternatives to roadway construction may allow for alternatives that incorporate the environmental qualities of the site, with reduced footprints and environmental effects. The implementation of habitat protection measures (through critical habitat, enforcement, or land acquisition) will also promote the persistence of those areas and the species that occupy them. Additional research and monitoring requirements will increase the knowledge relating to the ecosystem, habitats, and closely associated species, while public awareness initiatives may assist in raising awareness of other species at risk and shared threats.

Negative environmental effects arising from this strategy will likely be confined to the implementation of active habitat management techniques or through efforts to reintroduce the Massasauga. Although approaches will have an overall positive effect on the Massasauga and its habitats, potential negative impacts on species that occupy the same area, with conflicting habitat requirements, may arise (e.g. Spotted Turtle). Therefore, proposed management strategies will require the consideration of all species and the adoption of an ecosystem-based or balanced approach, in order to mitigate any adverse environmental effects. Management techniques proposed to restore open habitats and to minimize or prevent succession to closed canopy habitats (e.g. prescribed burns or mechanical removal) may adversely impact other species. Effects could include potential loss of individuals of other species, including other species at risk, potential loss of mature forest, woodland and/or thicket habitats, and loss of downed woody debris that can provide important microhabitat to other species. Removal of larger trees could potentially disturb or damage nesting and nests of rare and migratory birds, small mammals, and other wildlife species utilizing them as habitat. Removal programs would require careful field surveys prior to removal, and if migratory birds or other species at risk are found, then the appropriate Agency must be contacted prior to removal activities in order to mitigate any potential effects.

Gaps in the forest created through removals may promote the growth of invasive species. Soil disturbance should therefore be kept to a minimum. Native species recruitment in these gaps should be promoted through plantings, as well as immediate removal of colonizing invasive species, or through other means. Vegetation removal in hibernation areas of Massauga may also be detrimental to the species itself. Therefore, proposed techniques must be site sensitive, with on-site personnel knowledgeable of the species needs. Restorationists at Wainfleet for example have adopted an ecosystem-based approach during the active restoration stage, to try and balance the needs of regionally rare bog plants with faunal species-at-risk.

Population management techniques, particularly the reintroduction of Massasauga individuals, may also have the potential to negatively impact other species. Increased numbers of snakes may result in an increase in predation of small mammals or other species. New individuals may also be vectors for new diseases and will require careful screening and planning prior to reintroduction efforts.

The potential loss of individual plants from trampling and disturbance due to Massasauga research and/or monitoring activities could also occur, particularly in sensitive alvar habitats.

In public areas or where public funds are involved, a screening level environmental assessment under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (1992, c. 37) (CEAA) to address project specific concerns may be required.

Multi-species action plan for Thousand Islands National Park

Appendix A: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery measures may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in Thousand Islands National Park. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in Thousand Islands National Park; all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were considered and mitigated, and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park’s management plan (Parks Canada Agency, 2010b). Consequently, measures outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of the park. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship measures, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve park visitors, local residents, Aboriginal organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Kouchibouguac National Park of Canada and Associated National Historic Sites of Canada

Appendix E: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s (FSDS) goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery measures may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the action plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in Kouchibouguac National Park and associated National Historic Sites. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in Kouchibouguac National Park and associated National Historic Sites. Consequently all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were evaluated and mitigated, and, where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the Park’s ecological integrity monitoring program, and the Park’s management plan (Parks Canada, 2010). As a result, measures outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of the Park. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives involving park visitors, local residents, Aboriginal organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Bruce Peninsula National Park and Fathom Five National Marine Park

Appendix D: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery measures may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in BPNP and FFNMP. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery documents already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in BPNP and FFNMP; all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were considered and mitigated, and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the management plans for the two parks (Parks Canada Agency, 1998 & 2013). Consequently measures outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of the park. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship measures, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve park visitors, local residents, Indigenous organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Kejimkujik National Park and National Historic Site of Canada

Appendix E: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s (FSDS) goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery measures may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in Kejimkujik. This plan puts into practice measures presented in recovery strategies for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in Kejimkujik. Consequently all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were evaluated and mitigated, and, where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the ecological integrity monitoring program at Kejimkujik and by the park management plan (Parks Canada Agency, 2010). As a result, measures outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of Kejimkujik. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship measures, educational programs, volunteer opportunities, and awareness initiatives involving park visitors, local residents, Indigenous organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Point Pelee National Park and Niagara National Historic Sites

Appendix E: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in PPNP and NNHS. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in PPNP and NNHS; all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were considered and mitigated, and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park’s management plan (Parks Canada Agency, 2010). Consequently activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of both sites. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Aboriginal organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Prince Edward Island National Park

Appendix E: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s (FSDS) goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery measures may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts on non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in PEINP. This plan puts into practice measures presented in recovery strategies for Piping Plover (melodus subspecies) and Gulf of St. Lawrence Aster (Symphyotrichum laurentianum), both of which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents (Environment Canada 2012a, 2012b). Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in PEINP. Consequently all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were evaluated and mitigated, and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the Park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the Park’s management plan (Parks Canada 2007). As a result, measures outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of the Park. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship measures, educational programs, and awareness initiatives involving park visitors, local residents, Aboriginal organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Pukaskwa National Park of Canada

Appendix D: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in PNP. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in PNP; all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were considered and mitigated, and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park’s management plan (Parks Canada, 2014). Consequently activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of both sites. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Indigenous Peoples, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Banff National Park of Canada

Appendix C: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of an SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in Banff National Park. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in draft recovery strategies, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit species at risk that regularly occur in the park; all of these species were considered in the planning process. Where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park management plan (Parks Canada, 2010). Consequently activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of the park. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Indigenous communities, stakeholders, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Jasper National Park of Canada

Appendix C: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s goals and targets. Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general.

However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in JNP. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in JNP and ; all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were considered and mitigated, and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the Park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the Park’s management plan (Parks Canada, 2010). Consequently activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of both sites. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Indigenous organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Kootenay National Park of Canada

Appendix C: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of an SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in Kootenay National Park. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit species at risk that regularly occur in the park; all of these species were considered in the planning process. Where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park management plan (Parks Canada, 2010). Consequently activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of the park. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Indigenous organizations, stakeholders, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Mount Revelstoke National Park of Canada and Glacier National Park of Canada

Appendix C: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in MRG. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in MRG and all of these species were considered in the planning process; any potential secondary effects were considered and mitigated; and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park’s management plan (Parks Canada, 2010). Consequently activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of both sites. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Indigenous organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Waterton Lakes National Park of Canada and Bar U Ranch National Historic Site of Canada

Appendix E: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of a SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy’s goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in WLNP and BURNHS. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in recovery strategies already developed for some of the species at risk in this plan, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit all species at risk that regularly occur in WLNP and BURNHS; all of these species were considered in the planning process, any potential secondary effects were considered and mitigated, and where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park’s and site’s management plans (Parks Canada, 2005; 2010). Consequently, activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of both sites. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Indigenous organizations, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.

Multi-species action plan for Yoho National Park of Canada

Appendix C: Effects on the environment and other species

A strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is conducted on all SARA recovery planning documents, in accordance with the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The purpose of an SEA is to incorporate environmental considerations into the development of public policies, plans, and program proposals to support environmentally sound decision-making and to evaluate whether the outcomes of a recovery planning document could affect any component of the environment or achievement of any of the Federal Sustainable Development Strategy goals and targets.

Recovery planning is intended to benefit species at risk and biodiversity in general. However, it is recognized that recovery actions may also inadvertently lead to environmental effects beyond the intended benefits. The planning process, which is based on national guidelines, directly incorporates consideration of all environmental effects, with a particular focus on possible impacts upon non-target species or habitats. The results of the SEA are incorporated directly into the plan itself, and are summarized below.

Overall, it is anticipated that implementation of this action plan will have a beneficial impact on non-target species, ecological processes, and the environment in Yoho National Park. This plan puts into practice recovery goals presented in draft recovery strategies, which were subject to SEAs during the development of those documents. Further, this action plan was developed to benefit species at risk that regularly occur in the park; all of these species were considered in the planning process. Where appropriate, measures were designed to benefit multiple species. The planning process was also guided by priorities identified in the park’s ecological integrity monitoring program and the park management plan (Parks Canada, 2010). Consequently activities outlined in this plan address key management priorities aimed at improving the broader ecological health of the park. Finally, this plan outlines stewardship actions, educational programs, and awareness initiatives that will involve visitors, local residents, Indigenous organizations, stakeholders, and the general public. This will lead to greater appreciation, understanding, and action towards the conservation and recovery of species at risk in general.