In 2016, a management plan review was undertaken of the 2007 Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada Management Plan, and found to remain applicable for the management of the site with no revisions required. The 2007 Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada Management Plan will continue to provide strategic management direction for the site until the next management plan review, in ten years’ time or sooner as required.

Table of contents

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Chief Executive Officer of Parks Canada, 2007

Cette publication est aussi disponible en français.

Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada National Historic Site Management Plan, 2007.

  • Catalogue No: R64-105/60-2006E
  • ISBN: 0-662-44405-1

For more information about the management plan or about Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada :


Mailing address:
   Location: Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada
     P834 Chemin du Vieux-Fort
     Duhamel-Ouest QC J9V 1N7

Telephone:
   Phone number: 819-629-3222

Telephone:
   Phone number: 1-888-773-8888


Front cover image credits

Parks Canada / M. Rannou / C. Soucy


Foreword

John Baird, Minister of the Environment

Canada’s national historic sites, national parks and national marine conservation areas offer Canadians from coast-to-coast-to-coast unique opportunities to experience and understand our wonderful country. They are places of learning, recreation and fun where Canadians can connect with our past and appreciate the natural, cultural and social forces that shaped Canada.

From our smallest national park to our most visited national historic site to our largest national marine conservation area, each of these places offers Canadians and visitors unique opportunities to experience Canada. These places of beauty, wonder and learning are valued by Canadians they are part of our past, our present and our future.

Our Government’s goal is to ensure that each of these special places is conserved.

We see a future in which these special places will further Canadians’ appreciation, understanding and enjoyment of Canada, the economic wellbeing of communities, and the vitality of our society.

Our Government’s vision is to build a culture of heritage conservation in Canada by offering Canadians exceptional opportunities to experience our natural and cultural heritage.

These values form the foundation of the new management plan for Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada. I offer my appreciation to the many thoughtful Canadians who helped to develop this plan, particularly to our dedicated team from Parks Canada, and to all those local organizations and individuals who have demonstrated their good will, hard work, spirit of co-operation and extraordinary sense of stewardship.

In this same spirit of partnership and responsibility, I am pleased to approve the Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada Management Plan.

John Baird
Minister of the Environment

Recommendations

Recommended by and original signed by

Alan Latourelle

Chief Executive Officer
Parks Canada Agency

Francine Émond

Superintendent, Western Quebec Field Unit
Parks Canada Agency


1.0 Introduction

1.1 The Parks Canada mandate and legislative framework

A federal agency reporting to the Minister of the Environment, Parks Canada has as its primary mission to fulfill Canada’s national and international mandate regarding the recognition and conservation of heritage. Parks Canada carries out this role by protecting and presenting various significant examples of Canada’s natural and cultural heritage. It aims to ensure ecological or commemorative integrity, while promoting public understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment.

One of the most tangible results of the action taken by Parks Canada is the national historic sites network, to which the Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada belongs. Parks Canada manages 155 national historic sites, 28 of which are in Quebec. The national historic sites are managed according to the following objectives:

  • promote knowledge and appreciation of Canadian history through a national historic commemoration program;
  • ensure their commemorative integrity and protect and present them for the benefit, education, and enjoyment of present and future generations while demonstrating the respect that these precious and irreplaceable heritage sites and resources deserve;
  • encourage and support initiatives aimed at protecting and presenting sites of national historic significance that are not managed by Parks Canada.

By virtue of the Parks Canada Agency Act (1998), the Agency must produce a management plan for each national historic site it administers. The main purpose of the management plan is to provide guidance for actions aimed at the protection, heritage preservation, use, and management of the site. The plan is developed in accordance with the Parks Canada Guiding Principles and Operational Policies, including the National Historic Sites Policy and the Cultural Resources Management Policy. Parks Canada’s strategic objectives are also taken into account in the preparation of a management plan. For each historic site, the plan expresses Parks Canada’s general policies while taking into account the concerns and viewpoints of the public.

Canada’s family of national historic sites is comprised of places that symbolize significant elements of our national story, character, identity, and experience. Designated by the Minister of the Environment on the advice of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, our national historic sites provide a rich overview of how history has left its marks on the land. The Parks Canada commemoration program applies not only to sites, but also to people and events of national historic significance. Over 915 national historic sites of Canada, 590 persons, and 365 historic events have been officially recognized as nationally significant.


1.2 The management plan

The first management plan for Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site was produced in 1990. Over the past 15 years, major discoveries have enhanced our knowledge of the site, particularly with respect to the aboriginal presence, which dates back 5,000 years. Furthermore, a significant heritage presentation program has been largely implemented.

Looking ahead

This management plan was drawn up in accordance with section 32. (1) of the Parks Canada Agency Act and will be reviewed under section 32. (2) in 2011. Its purpose is to fulfill Agency obligations under the law and foster discussion on the future of Fort Témiscamingue over the next 15 years. An indepth consultation will be held in 2007-2008 to gather feedback and advice from the community. The next management plan will be drawn up on the basis of the consultation to implement the vision and management measures that are chosen.

Management plan content

This management plan includes a brief description of the national historic site, a report on the condition of its heritage resources, an overview of the main heritage presentation tools and other visitor services, as well as an analysis of the current situation and a look toward the future.


2.0 Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site

The Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site is located in the town of Duhamel-Ouest in Abitibi-Témiscamingue on a 27 hectare piece of land that juts into Lake Temiscaming where it narrows. Several landscape features and a considerable number of archaeological resources, both visible and buried, provide evidence of the site’s successive occupations.

The site as defined by Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada commemorates the trading post’s role in the fur trade for nearly two centuries, especially the fierce rivalry between the French and British to exploit the supply of pelts in Hudson’s Bay in the 17th and 18th centuries. The fort also serves as a reminder of the activities of the independent 18th century traders and the successive fur trade monopolies held in Témiscamingue, in the 19th century, by the North West and Hudson’s Bay companies.

Fort Témiscamingue was designated a site of national historic significance in 1967. The Canadian government acquired the property now administered by Parks Canada in 1970 Footnote 1. The Commission plaque currently found at the site was installed in 1977.

Consisting essentially of archaeological remains, the fur trading post that once occupied the national historic site is now almost entirely invisible to visitors. A series of archaeological excavations have partially revealed its existence, through the many building remains and the large number of artefacts discovered. Traces of earlier occupations of the site by Aboriginal peoples were also uncovered in almost every sector in which archaeological work took place.

The site’s current presentation is the result of an integrated development program first introduced in 1997, communicating both the messages related to the commemorative intent and the site’s other heritage values.

Given the demands of conserving archaeological resources, the site’s presentation and interpretation focus on a few genuine historical remains and employ various contemporary tools to present the messages of national historic significance and other values to the public.

In 1998, a burial ground was accidentally found during work conducted for site development east of the Protestant cemetery. The burial area and other parts of the site were tested using non-disruptive geophysical methods, to assess the extent of the interment area and the potential presence of other human remains. Special measures have since been taken to protect the potential burial areas identified, in order to avoid accidental discoveries or other disruptions. Work was conducted in close cooperation with representatives of the Algonquin communities.

Following the accidental discovery of the human burials, an agreement in principal between Parks Canada and the Timiskaming First Nation was concluded in 2000 to negotiate a Trust Patrimony Agreement to oversee a fifty percent undivided co-ownership of the historic site property. The purpose of the Trust Patrimony Agreement will be to protect the Aboriginal history and culture associated with Fort Témiscamingue. The Trust Patrimony will be administered by eight trustees who will have an ongoing role in the management of the site. Negotiations are still ongoing to conclude the Agreement.

Once a Trust Patrimony Agreement is signed, the current management plan will be revised to provide a new framework for managing the future of Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site.

Map 1: Location of the site

Map 1: Location of the site
Location of the site — text version

This map shows the location of Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada, near Lake Témiscamingue, on the Ontario / Quebec border, Canada.


3.0 A fundamental concept: commemorative integrity

The notion of commemorative integrity is a concept used by Parks Canada to describe the health and wholeness of national historic sites. It refers to the desired condition of a particular site. A national historic site possesses commemorative integrity when:

  • the resources directly associated with the reasons for its designation as a national historic site are not impaired or threatened;
  • the reasons for its designation as a national historic site are effectively communicated to the public;
  • the heritage values of the site, including those unrelated to the reasons for its designation as a national historic site, are respected in every decision or action affecting the site.

In order to ensure the proper protection and presentation of national historic sites, Parks Canada has developed a Cultural Resource Management Policy. This policy draws on five major management principles: value, public interest, understanding, respect, and integrity. Complying with these principles generally makes it possible to ensure the commemorative integrity of a national historic site. In practice, enforcing this policy means identifying and assessing cultural resources, and taking their historical value into consideration each time measures are put forward.

The commemorative integrity statement for the Fort Témiscamingue national historic site was approved in 1997. It determined the scope of the designated site, established the reasons for its designation, described the cultural resources found at the site, attributed them a value, and identified the commemoration messages to be presented to the public. The statement also set out objectives for protecting cultural resources and communicating messages. The commemorative integrity statement is a frame of reference that establishes the desired condition of the site based on information available at the time of writing. Comparing the site’s desired condition with its current one allows us to develop the appropriate management measures for preserving and presenting the site.

Fort Témiscamingue was designated a national historic site in 1967. It received this designation for the following reasons:

Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada commemorates the trading post’s role in the fur trade for nearly two centuries, especially the fierce rivalry between the French and British to exploit the supply of pelts in Hudson’s Bay in the 17th and 18th centuries. The fort also serves as a reminder of the activities of the independent 18th century traders and the successive fur trade monopolies held in Témiscamingue, in the 19th century, by the North West and Hudson’s Bay companies.

Since the commemorative integrity statement was approved, representatives from local Algonquin communities have expressed a wish to see the commemoration objective enriched to take into account new discoveries and show greater sensitivity to the multiple historical perspectives of the site. Such a measure, which requires the involvement of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada, is being envisaged as part of the site’s next management cycle.

Messages of national historic significance

The messages of national historic significance listed in the Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada commem orative integrity statement are as follows:

  • The fundamental importance of the fur trade in the Canadian economy up until the 19th century
  • The location and strategic role of the Témiscamingue trading post in the fur trade
  • The French-English rivalry in the struggle for control of the Hudson’s Bay fur supply in the 17th and 18th centuries
  • The commercial activities of independent merchants and the North West and Hudson’s Bay companies in the Témiscamingue and Abitibi regions in the 18th and 19th centuries

To enhance comprehension of these messages, the following elements have been identified:

  • The role played (or the place occupied) by Aboriginal peoples in the fur trade at Fort Témiscamingue
  • The life of the inhabitants, and the role and operation of the trading post located at the narrows on Lake Temiscaming, on one of the main travel routes to Hudson’s Bay
  • The political and economic conflicts between the French and English in the northern fur trade
  • The commercial activities of independent merchants (Paul Guillet, Richard Dobie, James Grant, Aeneas Cameron) and the monopoly companies in the Timiskaming fur trade.

4.0 Current condition of the administered site

The first steps in achieving commemorative integrity are to protect cultural resources and communicate messages concerning national historic significance. The resources of national historic significance that must be protected at Fort Témiscamingue include the trading post and its cultural landscape, the archaeological remains and collection. The cemeteries at the site are also extremely valuable and must be protected. Certain other resources and values must also be preserved and additional messages presented to the public.

Parks Canada is responsible for the protection and presentation of the cultural resources it administers. However, the Agency invites the community to participate in achieving its goals, thereby strengthening community feelings of ownership.


4.1 Condition of heritage resources

4.1.1 Cultural resources
Cultural landscape

The site’s landscape features the upper plateau, the terrace, the sandy shore of Lake Temiscaming and the relations between them are on the whole well preserved. However, the shoreline of the site administered by Parks Canada was significantly altered by the construction of a hydroelectric dam on the Ottawa River in 1919.

Archaeological vestiges

Numerous archaeological resources provide tangible evidence of Fort Témiscamingue’s past. They include many building remains as well as traces of palisades and of the post’s road. Most archaeological vestiges are associated with the period in which the site was occupied by the Hudson’s Bay Company (1821-1902). Others are older, hailing from its days as a trading post during the second half of the 18th century (North West Company). The site’s archaeological resources are generally in good (stable) condition Footote 2. Two building chimneys are the only clearly defined visual landmarks in the landscape.

Traces of settlements by indigenous peoples, predating the arrival of Europeans to the Obadjiwan site Footote 3, were found in almost all excavated areas. So far no structural remains related to Aboriginals have been identified Footote 4. However, a combination of charcoal and calcified animal bones in some places may indicate that fire pits were located nearby. These traces of early occupations are not in jeopardy, except perhaps in some places along the shore.

No comprehensive report on the archaeological work done has yet been compiled.

Archaeological collections

The administered site’s Euro-Canadian archaeological collection contains over 125,500 artefacts preserved under good conditions at the Quebec Service Centre. Forty percent of them are deemed in good condition, while the remainder—mostly metal objects—are more damaged. All of the artefacts have been inventoried, but only some have been analyzed and written up in a report or publication. All archaeological documentation prior to 1985 needs to be examined and processed.

The administered site’s Aboriginal archaeological collection has some 6,820 artefacts. Most of the collection was gathered during excavations carried out between 1992 and 1995. It includes lithic remains, pottery fragments, and ecofacts that provide evidence of various distinct episodes of occupation. One of these clearly dates to the Middle Woodland era (500-900 A.D.) and another is attributed to the St. Lawrence Archaic period (circa 3,000 B.C.). However, the data we have about this long period in the site’s history are still quite incomplete. Most of the material is conserved at the Quebec Service Centre under good conditions. The objects are generally considered to be in good condition. All of the artefacts have been inventoried in a computer database, analyzed, and written up in a report.

Some Aboriginal and Euro-Canadian artefacts are on display, under proper conditions, at the national historic site.


4.1.2 The cemeteries and other burial grounds
The Catholic and Protestant cemeteries

The Catholic and Protestant cemeteries, still in their original location and still considered sacrosanct, are an integral part of the trading post. They provide the main historic evidence of the site’s ethnological heritage. Religious practice and the recent addition of a gravestone keep the Fort Témiscamingue tradition alive. The Catholic and Protestant cemeteries are generally considered stable and in good condition Footote 5.

The other burial grounds

In 1998, a burial ground was accidentally found during work conducted for site development east of the Protestant cemetery. Some of the graves may date from the time of the trading post while others may predate it. After work was halted, the burial area and other parts of the site were tested using nondisruptive geophysical methods to gauge the extent of the interment area and the potential presence of other human remains. Special measures have since been taken to protect the potential burial areas identified, in order to avoid accidental discoveries or other disruptions. Work was conducted in close cooperation with representatives of the Algonquin communities concerned.


4.1.3 The natural environment

More than 80% of the total site area is covered by woodland, including 20 different forest stands. As a result of past harvesting, the red and white pines that used to populate the site have been partially replaced by a younger forest cover, dominated by pioneering species (poplar and birch). The bluffs have been colonized by a nearly pure red pine forest, while the south-western tip of the escarpment is home to a dry grove of Eastern white cedar. This more than 100-year-old cedar growth is known in the region as the “enchanted forest.” The site is also home to endangered (rare and vulnerable) plant species Footote 6 for which special measures must be taken to ensure their survival. The national historic site’s natural resources are in good condition and are not seriously threatened by nature, development, or visitor traffic.


4.2 Presentation

The site’s current presentation is the result of an integrated development program first introduced in 1997, communicating both the messages related to the commemorative intent and the site’s other heritage values Footote 7. Given the demands of conserving archaeological resources, presentation and interpretation activities at Fort Témiscamingue focus on a few genuine historical remains and employ various contemporary tools to present the messages of national historic significance and other values to the public.

Three types of communication are used to present the major themes to the public.

An exhibit in the visitor reception and interpretation centre

First of all, the new visitor and interpretation centre, which opened in 2000, evokes the past by simulating a fort: several roofs seem to rise above a long palisade, as if there were several buildings. The centre’s design was presented several times to the public and the local community is very satisfied with the results.

The exhibit inside the centre summarizes the history of the fur trade and the key part played by Fort Témiscamingue in the Northwest’s regional fabric over the centuries. A backdrop depicts the role of the main players, the Anishnabe hunters and fur dealers. The wealth of natural resources in the area explains the predominant position of the Fort on the northern Fur Trade Route. In the entryway, an impressionist mural relates the site’s functions and roles throughout history. The exhibit room houses nine coordinated thematic groupings tracing the history of the fur trade. Many artefacts found at the site during the archaeological investigations are used for illustrative purposes all along the room’s circuit.

One-third of the exhibit presents the culture of Aboriginal peoples, including artefacts discovered at the site.

A discovery circuit

An outdoor trail follows the ancient structures and the remains discovered in the digs. Seven thematic island displays, including 19 interpretation panels, explain the fort’s major functions in the 19th century. Platforms cover the exact spots on which the rediscovered buildings stood and 3D scenes illustrate their main uses. Fences help visitors picture what 19th century travelers would have seen on their arrival at the fort.

The work group responsible for developing this heritage presentation tool won the Parks Canada award, all-Canada category, for nonpersonalized media in 2003.

An interpretation program

The interpretation program mostly consists of guided and self-guided tours. Costumed guides also play characters important to the operation of the trading post - travellers, stewards, post heads, blacksmiths, etc. for the benefit of visitors walking the discovery circuit. These activities help communicate messages. The presentation plan also called for producing a video and brochure on Fort Témiscamingue, but neither has yet been made.


4.3 Visitor experience

Self-guided visitors

The visitor circuit begins at the entrance gate Footote 8, where visitors are told what kind of tours are available and pay their admission fees. They are asked to leave their vehicles in the parking lot nearby. The tour begins by providing an overall feel for the site via a trail laid out along a path for inhabitants would have taken in the 19th century. Visitors can linger on the shores of great Lake Témiscaming before making their way to the reception and interpretation centre. They are greeted by a guide in the reception area, which recreates the feel of a trading post, complete with shelves of goods and a large representation depicting the Anishnabe trading in the company store. A small gift shop is housed there. Visitors are then invited to explore the exhibit room, which tells the story, in highlights, of the site’s history. They are especially encouraged to view the 3D model, which gives them an idea of the fort’s composition in 1880 during the Hudson’s Bay Company era. The model helps visitors understand the spatial layout of the discovery trail on the fort grounds. They can join a group for a guided tour or go to a point on the outdoor trail to begin a self-guided tour.

After leaving the reception and interpretation centre, visitors begin their outside tour at the Cour des Ancêtres (Ancestors’ Courtyard), an area planned and furnished with the help of the Témiscamingue Historical Society. They continue along a trail leading them to the island displays, with scenes illustrating the buildings’ functions and interpretation panels. The enchanted forest, where visitors can view the twisted Eastern cedars and red pines, is close by. On the upper plateau, visitors are in contact with the Catholic cemetery, from where they start down the path leading them back to the fort. It takes them to the foot of the escarpment, where the Protestant cemetery, the recently defined burial area, and the trading post road are located. Visitors pass through the interpretation centre again on their way back to the parking area at the site’s entrance.

Special activities

For the last few summers, cultural outreach activities have been organized in close collaboration with the Timiskaming First Nation. Several special events have also been held during the peak season. Visitors are invited to the activity centre constructed near the reception centre, where they can watch festivities, shows, or theme presentations from the nearby bleachers accommodating some 100 people.

The reception and interpretation centre includes a multipurpose room, which is used to show films and present temporary thematic or regional artist exhibits, among other things. Various kinds of regional activities and events are also held there.

Other services

The national historic site has complete restroom facilities. Picnic areas are set aside in several places. Unsupervised swimming and beach access are allowed between the gate at the site’s entrance and the reception and interpretation centre. Brochures for the entire Parks Canada system and other sites of interest are provided free of charge.


4.4 Information on visitors and attendance

Visitors

The visitor survey conducted at Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site in 2004 is the most recent source of detailed information about visitors. Here are a few highlights: Footote 9

  • 82% of visitors come from Quebec and 87% are French speakers.
  • 72% of respondents were visiting the site for the first time.
  • Overall, visitors are very happy with their experience. 99% of them, for example, would recommend that a relative or friend visit the site.
  • Most visitors are satisfied with the activities and services available.
  • Most visitors give staff and staff performance satisfactory marks; the percentage of visitors happy with the quality of personnel ranges between 97% and 100%.
  • The visitor survey did not satisfactorily verify that visitors understood the messages of national historic significance.
  • The features most popular with visitors were the discovery circuit (scenes) and the canoe building activity carried out in conjunction with the Timiskaming First Nation.
Attendance

The most recent statistical report (2005) provides the following information concerning Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site Footote 10 attendance and use:

  • Attendance is down 8% (798 fewer visits than in 2004).
  • Except for the 1998 season, 2005 posted the lowest attendance recorded to date.
  • All types of visits (non-group, school groups, and other groups) were down in 2005.
  • Attendance at special activities was down.
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006
Number of visitors 10,398 10,025 9,675 8,877 7,797
Difference (%) - 4% - 3% - 8% - 12%

Groups of primary schoolchildren represent a small proportion of the site’s total clientele, about 9% to 10%, and come mainly during the first three weeks of June. Attendance has dropped since 2003 despite the site’s efforts to promote itself. Some 800 Abitibi-Témiscamingue and northeastern Ontario teachers are sent materials each year about the services offered for primary school students.

Map 2 : site components

Site components
Site components — text version

The image consists of a map of the Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada and it's components including the ancestors court, the visitor and interpretation centre, the canoe workshop, the burials area, the store, the chief factor's house, the carpentry workshop, the blacksmith's forge and the enchanted forest.


5.0 Looking ahead

5.1 A changing context

Parks Canada manages the site which it currently owns. However, events that have occurred since the first management plan was approved in 1990 have had a major impact on the implementation of proposed measures and the overall management of the historic site.

A number of adjustments have been made to the 1990 investment plan to take into account new discoveries about the history of the site, especially regarding Aboriginal use of the site. The visitor reception and interpretation centre has been completed, along with various other components of the development and presentation program set out in the management plan.

Since the accidental discovery of human burials in 1998, Parks Canada has worked closely with representatives of the Timiskaming First Nation and other community stakeholders to build a climate of mutual trust conducive to cooperation and the development of an innovative management approach.

Aboriginal hiring has been prioritized since the site reopened, with two positions created on the visitor reception and interpretation team. Additional summer jobs have also been created with the support of the Aboriginal Presentation Innovation Fund.

Even though an agreement in principal to negotiate a Trust Patrimony Agreement was concluded with the Timiskaming First Nation in May 2000 (renewed in 2005), negotiations 28 have not yet been completed to determine the final terms and conditions of the Agreement. Parks Canada intends to consult other Algonquin First Nations before signing the Trust Patrimony Agreement in order to collect their suggestions or concerns on the contents of the document.

Recent history of Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada
  • 1990: Management plan approval and announcement of $2.3 million for site presentation
  • 1995–1997: Development of heritage presentation concept and plan in consultation with stakeholder groups, including the Algonquins, followed by drafting of commemorative integrity statement
  • July 1997: Cost-sharing agreement between Parks Canada and Témiscamingue Historical Society for site presentation ($2 million from Parks Canada and $500,000 from the local community)
  • October 1997: Start of interpretation centre construction
  • May 1998: Accidental discovery of human burials
  • June 1998: Algonquin occupation of the site, cessation of development and closure of site for two years
  • May 2000: Signing of an agreement in principal between Parks Canada and the Timiskaming First Nation to negotiate a Trust Patrimony Agreement to oversee a fifty percent undivided co-ownership of the historic site property to a Trust Patrimony administered by eight trustees who will have an ongoing role in the management of the site.
  • July 2000: Partial reopening of the site
  • 2001: Complete reopening of the site

5.2 Main Parks Canada objectives

The Parks Canada Agency mandate is to protect and present national significant examples of Canada’s natural and cultural heritage. It is also charged with fostering public understanding, appreciation, and enjoyment of these sites in ways that ensure they are maintained intact for future generations. To fulfill this mandate, Parks Canada has adopted the following strategic orientations to guide its activities over the next five years:

  • improve the network of national historic sites, substantially add to the network of national parks, and make solid progress in developing the network of national marine conservation areas;
  • maintain or improve the commemorative or ecological integrity of each of our national historic sites and parks;
  • further raise awareness of national parks, national historic sites, and national marine conservation areas and promote understanding, appreciation, and a shared sense of ownership;
  • draw up a stable, long term financial strategy to protect our historic and contemporary properties.

Parks Canada will work in close cooperation with the community to attain these objectives for Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada. A long-term vision and specific measures will be drawn up for this purpose as part of the in-depth consultation that will be held in 2007–2008 to gather community opinions and advice for this purpose.

The next management plan will then be put in place to implement this vision.


5.3 An in-depth consultation

The consultations that will be held to help prepare the next management plan will focus on community needs and expectations regarding:

  • knowledge and commemoration of the site;
  • protection of cultural and natural resources;
  • presentation and communication of messages;
  • visitor experience;
  • collaboration with the various stakeholders.

The objectives defined will constitute the foundation of a jointly developed vision for the future of Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada. Drawing on the commitments of the Canadian government and Parks Canada legislation and policy, this vision should contribute directly to strengthening the site’s commemorative integrity. Management measures will be developed in consequence.


5.4 Management measures

The Western Quebec Field Unit, which manages the site, will give priority to several management measures related to implementation of the management plan. These measures are as follows:

  • While maintaining our commitments with all the other community stakeholders, conclude the negotiation of a Trust Patrimony Agreement with the Timiskaming First Nation. 30
  • Work in close cooperation with the other community stakeholders to protect commemorative integrity, manage the landscapes, and deliver quality visitor services.
  • Ask the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada for clarification on the physical limits of the designated site.
  • Draw up a new management plan based on the results obtained in applying the above measures.
  • Ensure that the physical integrity of the archaeological remains, both visible and buried, is protected at all times.
  • Regularly monitor the condition of the site’s cultural and built resources and provide necessary maintenance.
  • Develop services that increase visitor attendance, maintain visitor satisfaction ratings, and foster a sense of belonging and pride on the part of the local community and the broader region.

5.5 Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada in 2020

The following section sketches out a vision for the future of Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada as envisioned by Parks Canada. The management goals and measures presented above and those that will be developed as part of the upcoming consultation process will guide and facilitate fulfillment of this vision.

Building on commitments by the Canadian government and Parks Canada policy and legislation, this vision focuses first and foremost on maintaining the commemorative integrity of the site. It is based on integrity statement requirements for protection, presentation, and education, as well as needs expressed with regard to the visitor experience and collaboration with interested parties.

In 2020, the physical limits of the national historic site will have been clearly defined and, if the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada deems it necessary, its commemorative goal will have been updated.

A Trust Patrimony Agreement is in place and the co-owners (Parks Canada and the Trust Patrimony) of the historic site property work in close cooperation with other community stakeholders towards reaching commemorative integrity and the provision of quality visitor services.

The main archaeological components and the cemeteries will be maintained in good condition, the site’s other cultural and historic resources will be preserved, and a regular maintenance program will be in place.

Messages of national historic significance and other values will be effectively communicated to the public.

Fort Témiscamingue National historic Site will be a leading player in the AbitibiTémiscamingue tourism industry and a star attraction on the regional heritage and tourist circuit. The public will be well informed about available services and will be able to visit in complete safety. The attendance will correspond to the site’s capacity and the latter will enjoy an enviable reputation among exterior clienteles.

The site will be managed in keeping with Canadian government guidelines on sustainable development, climate change, and endangered species.


6.0 Public participation

This management plan has been brought to the attention of community representatives interested in the protection and presentation of Fort Témiscamingue. They have had the opportunity to read it and express their views as part of the planning process.

Publication of the management plan does not mark the end of public consultations, but rather the continuation of an ongoing dialogue with the community, interest groups and government organizations. The director of the Western Quebec Field Unit is responsible for monitoring plan implementation and reporting to the public on the results achieved.

The director will determine the extent and form of the report on the results achieved. The Field Unit’s business plan will set out the strategy for implementing the management measures and determine the allocation of resources based on the priorities in this management plan. The annual business plan report will assess progress made in implementation. The national report on the state of protected heritage areas will provide an overview of the state of the network and the results of management planning for Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada.

The Parks Canada Agency Act (1998) requires that management plans be examined every five years and amendment proposals be submitted to Parliament.


7.0 Summary of the strategic environmental assessment

The review of the Fort-Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada Management Plan has been undertaken in accordance with the 1999 Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Proposed Policies, Plans and Programs. The undertaking of measures outlined in the management plan will contribute to the commemorative integrity and the protection of the site’s cultural resources. It is in keeping with its Commemorative Integrity Statement.

This strategic environmental assessment is based on the preliminary version of the management plan, this to allow for the inclusion of mitigative measures before a final decision is made as to the impact of measures on the environment. This has allowed for the adjustment of the management plan accordingly.

The results of this strategic environmental assessment indicate that, based on the available information, the measures put forward for this site are acceptable. The strategic measures presented in the management plan are in accordance with the mandate and management policies of Parks Canada. This exercise indicates that the Fort Témiscamingue management plan serves favorably the commemorative integrity of the site. Potential negative effects can be mitigated by the application of technical measures or through other means the effectiveness of which has been demonstrated in the past.


Studies, research reports and other reference material

Environment Canada, Parks Canada. Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada, Management Plan, Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1990.

Parks Canada, “Lieu historique national du Canada du Fort-Témiscamingue, Étude auprès des visiteurs 2004,” Parks Canada, November 2005.

Parks Canada. “Rapport statistiques 2005, Parcs Canada au Québec: Fréquentation et utilisation des parcs nationaux et des lieux historiques nationaux du Canada,” Quebec Service Centre, May 2006.

Parks Canada. “Énoncé d’intégrité commémorative, Lieu historique national du Canada du Fort-Témiscamingue,” March 1997.

Parks Canada. “Guide pour l’élaboration des plans directeurs à Parcs Canada,” December 2000.

Canadian Heritage, Parks Canada. State of the Parks 1997 Report, Minister of Public Works and Governmental Services Canada, 1998.

Heritage Canada, Parks Canada, Parks Canada Guiding Principles and Operational Policies, Minister of Supply and Services Canada, 1994.


Planning committee

  • Luc Bérard, Landscape Architect, Sector Manager, Public Works and Governmental Services Canada
  • Jean Cotten, Manager, Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada, Western Quebec Field Unit
  • Lyse Cyr, Heritage Presentation Coordinator, Quebec Service Centre
  • Yvon Desloges, Historian, Quebec Service Centre
  • Diane Le Brun, Collections Manager, Quebec Service Centre
  • Brendan O’Donnell, Senior Advisor, Aboriginal Affairs, National Parks Branch
  • Yves Picard, Aboriginal Affairs Advisor, Quebec Executive Branch
  • Marlyn Rannou, Supervisor, Communications, Client Services and Heritage Presentation, Fort Témiscamingue National Historic Site of Canada, Western Quebec Field Unit

Technical support

  • Anne Desgagné, Computer Graphics Designer, Quebec Service Centre
  • Christiane Hébert, Graphic Designer, Quebec Service Centre