Algonquin, or Anicinabe, which means "men from this earth", occupy the territory for six millennia. For nearly two centuries, Obadjiwan–Fort Témiscamingue was a theatre where English and French rivals fought to control the fur trade too. This important trading post on the shore of Lake Témiscamingue witnessed a stream of trappers arriving to sell their furs to merchants and traders who shipped them on to Europe.
The Obadjiwan–Fort Témiscamingue site occupies a prime location on a piece of land formed by a narrowing of Lake Témiscamingue, where the two banks come closer than 250 meters to each other. The park's territory is mainly comprised of three distinct natural areas: the plateau, the escarpments and the lowlands.