Let's go back to 1860. Canada is not yet officially a country, but rather a British colony. Since the union of Upper and Lower Canada in 1840 it has been called United Canada. The province of United Canada had 2 400 000 inhabitants and covered 2,600,000 km2 , comprising what would later come to be known as the provinces of Quebec and Ontario. Defending the port of Québec against the Americans was more of an imperial than a colonial issue.
Under the orders of the royal engineers, nearly 500 soldiers, artisans and workers laboured away and invented new methods as they went. Construction took seven years. The fort bears witness to the latest industrial processes of the time and also shows evidence of some interesting technical innovations that were adapted to the site.