The Sainte-Anne-de-Bellevue Canal site is part of the Montreal climatic region. This zone is bounded to the north by a line approximately corresponding to the Taureau reservoir, to the east by a line running from Sorel to Lake Champlain, to the south by the US border, and to the west by the Carillon Dam.

The Montreal and the Eastern Townships regions have a warmer climate than the rest of Quebec; the Montreal area is milder than the Eastern Townships because of the St. Lawrence. The river tends to diminish sudden changes in temperature but also increases precipitation. The river's buffer effect and the southerly location of this area mean it enjoys an average annual temperature of 6° C, 141 frost-free days per year and 1 900 hours of sunshine. These figures are all much higher than the Quebec average. The Montreal region therefore has a longer growing season, resulting in better seed growth than in other regions. The prevailing winds come from the southwest, with a high proportion of northeasterlies in winter.