In September 1864, Province House was the scene of the first conference on colonial union. Delegates from the colonies of Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Canada met in the legislative council chamber to begin discussions, which led to confederation in 1867.

Completed in 1847, Province House was built in neo-classical style by local architect Isaac Smith to accommodate the provincial legislature and administrative offices. It also housed the Island’s Supreme Court until 1872. Today, Province House retains its central role in Island public life, with the Assembly holding sessions here until the building closed for conservation work in 2015.