Through this difficult period, most Acadians adhered to the policy of neutrality, which had been recognized by the Nova Scotia authorities in a qualified oath of allegiance sworn before Governor Philipps in 1729 and 1730. In 1755, on the eve of the Seven Year War, the acting governor and the Council of Nova Scotia decided to force the Acadians to take the standard unqualified oath, and, if they refused, to deport them. The Acadian representatives did refuse.

Lieutenant-Colonel John Winslow from New England was placed in charge of the deportation from the area of Les Mines. In all, some 2,200 Acadian men, women and children were deported from Les Mines, about a third of the nearly 6,000 Acadians deported from Nova Scotia in 1755.

In 1764, the British authorities finally permitted Acadians to return to Nova Scotia. Their former lands, however, had been settled by New England Planters in the intervening years. Acadians were forced to settle elsewhere in Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island and Québec.