Table of contents

© Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada, represented by the Chief Executive Officer of Parks Canada, 2016.

Library and Archives of Canada Cataloguing in Publication

  • Parks Canada
  • Cape Spear Lighthouse
  • National Historic Site of Canada:
    Management Plan / Parks Canada.

Issued also in French under the title:
Lieu historique national du Canada du Phare-de-Cap-Spear : plan directeur

  • Catalogue No.: R64-284/2016E-PDF
  • ISBN 978-1-100-21980-6
  1. Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada ( St. John’s, NL)-Management
  2. Historic sites-Canada-Management
  3. Historic sites – Newfoundland and Labrador- Management
  4. National parks and reserves-Canada-management

Front Cover Image Credits

Clockwise from top left: 1836 Lighthouse, Newfoundland and Labrador Tourism; Second World War disappearing gun, Library and Archives Canada; Whale off Cape Spear, Natalie Spracklin; and Cape Spear headland, Sean Matthews.

Cette publication est aussi disponible en français.

For more information about the management plan or Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada:

Mailing address:
Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada:
Superintendent
P.O. Box 1268
St. John’s, Newfoundland and Labrador
Canada
A1C 5M9

Telephone:
709-772-5367

Fax:
709-772-6302


Foreword

The Honourable Catherine McKenna, Minister of the Environment and Minister responsible for Parks Canada
The Honourable Catherine McKenna, Minister of the Environment and Minister responsible for Parks Canada

The Government is committed to preserving our natural and cultural heritage, expanding the system of protected places and contributing to the recovery of species-at-risk. At the same time, we must continue to offer new and innovative visitor and outreach programs and activities so that more Canadians can experience Parks Canada places and learn about our environment, history and culture.

This new management plan for Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada supports this vision.

Management plans are developed through extensive consultation and input from various people and organizations, including Indigenous Peoples, local and regional residents, visitors and the dedicated team at Parks Canada.

National parks, national historic sites and national marine conservation areas are a priority for the Government of Canada. I would like to thank everyone who contributed to this plan for their commitment and spirit of co-operation.

As the Minister responsible for Parks Canada, I applaud this collaborative effort and I am pleased to approve the Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site of Canada Management Plan.

Original signed by

Catherine McKenna
Minister of Environment and Climate Change and Minister responsible for Parks Canada

Recommendations

Recommended and original signed by

Daniel Watson
Chief Executive Officer
Parks Canada

Daniel Watson
Chief Executive Officer
Parks Canada

Executive Summary

Along the spine of a rocky windswept headland overlooking the vast North Atlantic Ocean stands a small wooden lighthouse in the British classical style. Although its light is long gone, it still acts as a beacon - drawing people to the tip of the continent and to Canada’s most easterly national historic site. Protecting the 1836 lighthouse was the impetus for the designation by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada to recommend designation in 1962. Based on this recommendation the site was acquired in 1964 and restored by Parks Canada in the late 1970s. Today, the site’s historic and contemporary lightkeeping buildings combine with its eastern-most location; the presence of icebergs, whales and seabirds; its weather and coastal experiences and its hidden Second World War battery complex to set the stage for real and inspiring experiences.

Newfoundland and Labrador’s east coast has become recognized as one of the top travel destinations on several internationally recognized tourism/travel industry lists because of its stunning natural environments and unique cultural experiences. Drawing upon this recognition and the iconic nature of the site itself Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS will be a source of pride and a gathering place for families, young people and visitors alike – a place to immerse oneself in the natural beauty of its coastal geography and a place to discover a unique history and experience a vibrant local culture.

The vision for the site centers on the notion that Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS, encompassing the most easterly point and the rugged Atlantic coastline, holds an almost spiritual attraction. Building on the site’s intrinsic appeal the goal of this plan will be to develop the site in a way that reinforces this bond by facilitating personal connections to the site. These connections will be strengthened by involving artists, local residents and an array of partners in identifying and developing programs, activities and interpretive opportunities which take advantage of the site’s natural features and its unique history.

To help focus the vision and guide development at the site, four key strategies and an area management plan has been developed. The strategies are:

Key Strategy 1
Increasing collaborations towards a greater variety of visitor experiences and programs.
Key Strategy 2
Providing the essentials to facilitate opportunities for enjoyable experiences and meet visitor expectations.
Key Strategy 3
Embracing the site’s physical realities to facilitate enhanced visitor experience opportunities.
Key Strategy 4
Sharing the Passion: Giving Voice and Form to the Spirit of Place.

The area management plan is based on a central arrival area and three management areas that are distinguished by the landscapes they occupy and the distinct visitor experiences that can optimally be facilitated within them. The management areas are:

1. Arrival and Orientation
The area where guests can plan their site visit, have their comfort needs met and be introduced to the site’s national historic significance through personal, non-personal and electronic media.
2. The Eastern Edge
Near the water’s edge and the site’s most popular attractions: the most easterly point and the Second World War Battery complex, the role of this area will be expanded to meet visitor demand and to facilitate new activities and community events.
3. Lightkeepers’ Loop
Situated on a ridge overlooking the ocean and encompassing the site’s lightkeeping resources, this is primarily where interactive and engaging experiences associated with the site’s lightkeeping history will be facilitated.
4. The Coastal Continuum
A trail traversing the site’s coastline connects to fantastic hiking experiences that go beyond the boundaries and connect to the East Coast Trail and beyond to over 500 kilometres of world class coastal hiking.

In response to the changing needs of today’s society, the Parks Canada Agency recognizes that heritage places such as Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS must offer experiences that are meaningful to Canadians in order to facilitate the opportunity for a strong sense of connection. This plan will contribute to achieving the Agency’s strategic outcome of connecting Canadians to their heritage places in a way that integrates the delivery of the Parks Canada mandate. Highlights of the plan include:

  • Evaluating conservation options for the Second World War Battery complex (which is in poor condition) that conserves its heritage values, ensures visitor safety and provides opportunities to facilitate visitor experiences.
  • Building on the interest generated during planning, proactively engage stakeholders and potential new partners by consulting and involving them in ways that are meaningful to them.
  • Meeting the interests of guests by bringing the 1836 lighthouse to life in engaging and meaningful ways. Options to be explored include, development of an accommodation offer, opportunity to experience traditional meals, evening programs, enlivening the interior space by providing craft and musical demonstrations, allowing limited access to the lantern section, using costumed interpretation and theme-inspired artistic or cultural activities.
  • Producing a site development plan and strategy that respects the heritage values of the site while at the same time ensuring that the essential infrastructure required to facilitate new services or amenities and encourage new partnerships are met.
  • Improving revenue generation and sustainability by reviewing the fee structure and by focusing on new sources of revenue such as program and event fees, site venue rental fees and special events.
  • Encouraging community events and family gatherings by making the site more interesting and enjoyable for children and families by improving facilities and services and developing innovative and interactive interpretive media and targeted programs of interest.

1.0 Introduction

Parks Canada is responsible for administering a national system of protected heritage places including national parks, national historic sites and national marine conservation areas on behalf of Canadians. As of this date Parks Canada is a proud steward of 167 national historic sites across Canada. They are protected and presented for the benefit and enjoyment of Canadians while ensuring that they remain unimpaired for present and future generations.

Parks Canada’s Mandate

On behalf of the people of Canada, we protect and present nationally significant examples of Canada’s natural and cultural heritage, and foster public understanding, appreciation and enjoyment in ways that ensure the ecological and commemorative integrity of these places for present and future generations.

1.1 Foundations for Management Planning

The Canada National Parks Act and the Parks Canada Agency Act (1998) form the legislative basis for Parks Canada’s responsibilities. The Parks Canada Agency Act gives Parks Canada the mandated responsibility for ensuring commemorative integrity of national historic sites. Management plans are developed for Parks Canada's administered places based on both legal requirements and Agency policies with regard to planning and reporting.

Management plans establish the long-term direction for Parks Canada’s activities at its sites and are reviewed on a ten year cycle. The foundation of management planning is the Parks Canada’s mandate which consists of three distinct but interrelated objectives: conserving heritage resources (protection), fostering enjoyment (facilitating opportunities for memorable visitor experiences), and fostering public appreciation and understanding (education). Management plans provide direction for achieving these objectives in an integrated way.

Parks Canada Strategic Outcome

Canadians have a strong sense of connection through meaningful experiences to their national parks, national historic sites, and national marine conservation areas and these protected places are enjoyed in ways that leave them unimpaired for present and future generations.

Guided by the values, policies and directions set forth in the Parks Canada’s National Historic Sites Policy, Cultural Resource Management Policy (1994) and the Parks Canada Guide to Management Planning (2008), management plans are tailored to the individual sites. They must also respond to the changing Canadian context. The previous management plan for Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS was tabled in Parliament April 2004. Much has changed since that time. Shifts in the cultural make-up of our country, changes in how Canadians spend their leisure time, and an increasingly urban Canadian population now influence Parks Canada’s approach to planning for the future. In response to the changing Canadian context Parks Canada has taken major steps to focus its work on connecting Canadians to their natural and cultural heritage. New corporate directions now guide Parks Canada’s work and planning for the future. A Performance Management Framework (2009) has been established that links activities at and planning for individual sites to Parks Canada’s Strategic Outcome. This approach is reflected in this management plan and will serve to focus Parks Canada’s activities so as to meet the evolving needs and expectations of Canadians.

Figure 1 – Location Map

Map showing location of the Cape Spear Lighthouse in Newfoundland

1.2 Management Plan Review Process

Management planning is part of a continuous cycle of monitoring and reporting, consultation, and decision-making. Since Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS’s last management plan was tabled, annual management plan implementation reports have been used as a tool to monitor progress on plan implementation and to keep partners and stakeholders appraised of site activities. As well, a variety of assessments and monitoring activities have been completed including social science research related to understanding site visitors, condition assessments of historic structures and evaluations of the site’s commemorative integrity. Drawing on information collected through the assessment and monitoring phase The Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC State of the Site Report was completed in 2009. The State of the Site Report provides a comprehensive summary of the current state of Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC in the three mandated areas of heritage protection, visitor experience and public outreach education. It assesses how well the site is doing in meeting Parks Canada’s strategic outcome and identifies key issues to be addressed in the new plan.

In response to gaps identified in the completed State of the Site Report further work, for this planning program, was carried out in the area of visitor experience. An Explorer Quotient (EQ)Footnote 1 Values-Opportunities Matching Workshop, involving site staff, partners and stakeholders, was held in February 2010. The workshop resulted in the identification of a variety of site experiences for specific traveller types. It concluded that there are potential opportunities at Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC for new and innovative programming that would help Canadians better connect to the site and make it more of a focal point for the community. The formal planning program was initiated in July 2010.

Building on the outcomes of the EQ Values Opportunities Workshop Parks Canada facilitated another workshop in September 2010 to explore possible interest in new innovative programs at the site. A cross-section of local arts and cultural professionals identified a range of initiatives and directions they would be interested in pursuing. The results of this initiative led to refinements in the plan’s vision statement and key directions, and the identification of a wide variety of potential initiatives involving arts and cultural activities. A public newsletter in November 2010 summarized the outcomes of the planning program to date and invited public input and involvement in the management planning program. A well-attended stakeholder’s workshop followed in December 2010 generating support for plan directions as well as new insights and perspectives on the plan elements. All of these were further enriched through comments received from the public at an Open House held shortly thereafter.

This revised plan incorporates the perspectives and input received from the site’s many stakeholders and partners as well as new communities of interest and individuals who took the time to offer their insight. It was developed by a multi-disciplinary team of Parks Canada staff drawn from all aspects of the site’s management.

2. Site Map

Site map of Cape Spear Lighthouse

2.0 Importance of the Site

Commemorative intent

Cape Spear Lighthouse has been designated to be of national historic importance by reason of its age and architecture.

The statement of commemorative intent describes the reasons for a site’s national significance as determined by the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada in 1962 and approved by the Minister responsible for Parks Canada. The Cape Spear Lighthouse site was designated because of the age and architecture of its original lighthouse.

Age

The Cape Spear lighthouse is 180 years old, having been established in 1836. Located on the cape at the mouth of St. John’s Bay, it was the first in a series of lighthouses established to aid navigation along Newfoundland’s rugged coast. At the time of the lighthouse’s establishment, the island’s economy was centred on the commercial fisheries and St. John’s was an important centre for the fish trade. Today the Cape Spear lighthouse stands as the oldest surviving lighthouse in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Architecture

The 1836 lighthouse represents a type of lighthouse once common on Canada’s east coast -- a stone tower supporting a metal lantern surrounded by a wooden residence. The stylistic influence of British classicism in the building’s architecture is also of significance and is evidenced by the building’s massing, symmetrical elements and classically derived architectural detailing.

Although the significance of the lighthouse was the primary impetus for the site’s designation, ensuring public accessibility to the most easterly point in Canada and protecting the Second World War Battery complex were also considerations in its establishment as a national historic site.

3.0 Current Planning Context

3.1 Recent Site History

Cape Spear NHSFootnote 2 was established in 1975. A management plan and site development program followed in the 1980s and focused on preserving the 1836 lighthouse in "as close to its original form as possible"Footnote 3, providing safe access to the Second World War Battery and the most easterly point, and protecting the natural resources contained in the 49 hectares of land that comprise the site.

Despite its proximity to St. John’s, the site was relatively isolated until 1978 when the road to St. John’s was upgraded. Most of the facilities that are available today were developed shortly after. They included: an access road and paved parking lot, period furnishing and restoration of the 1836 lighthouse and washroom facilities. A former assistant lightkeepers residence was also acquired. It was adapted for use as a small interpretation centre and gift shop. It also houses a staff room and office. The site’s footpaths were upgraded, a new walkway installed and picnic areas developed. The Second World War coastal guns were conserved and mounted. Later the trenches of the battery complex were roofed and structural supports added to the walls. The major focus of Parks Canada’s interpretation efforts was on the 1836 lighthouse with the Second World War Battery complex considered to be a minor theme.

Over the years improvements and upgrades have intermittently been made to the site’s various facilities such as trails, parking area, washrooms etc. Site stairs were added to make the 1836 lighthouse more accessible. Services such as the sewage system, electrical and communication systems have also been kept up-to-date. Recently the washroom facility was expanded to accommodate a satellite gift shop and a Parks Canada service kiosk.

Since the early years of the site’s establishment, protection of the 1836 lighthouse and its interior artifacts has continued through regular monitoring, maintenance and occasional intervention as needed. For example the roof was repaired and re-shingled and its metal lantern underwent a major conservation program in 2001. Elsewhere on the protection side, there has been an aggressive program of monitoring and repair to the Second World War battery complex to slow its deterioration. The walls and roofs of the complex were recently tested for structural soundness.

In the last few years new interpretive programs and activities have been introduced to help bring the stories of Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS to visitors. An emphasis on architectural features helped visitors understand the significance of the 1836 lighthouse. Explora – a hand-held GPS device that lets visitors explore and learn about the site on their own by accessing historical images, interviews and audio/video clips was introduced in 2010. Historical research is also underway to assist in the development of new interpretive offerings, including more on the individuals who lived and worked at the lighthouse as well as the role the site played in the Second World War.

Partners continue to enhance Parks Canada offerings at the site and beyond. There are four major partners who operate facilities at the site, within its enclave and adjacent to it. They include:

  1. The Historic Sites Association of Newfoundland and Labrador (HSANL) a cooperating association that provides retail services and contributes to on-site projects and special events;
  2. The Canadian Coast Guard Agency of Fisheries and Oceans Canada that operates the contemporary light tower and several other structures within an enclave on the site;
  3. The Coast Guard Alumni Association (CGAA) that operates an art gallery inside the Coast Guard Agency’s enclave and a small school group program; and
  4. The East Coast Trail Association (ECTA) that maintains and promotes a coastal trail system that links the site to over 540 kilometres of coastal hiking trails and coastal communities.

Facilities and associated services provided by Parks Canada and the site’s major partners are occasionally augmented by other partners involved in special programs and events such as cross- Canada kick-offs, hikes, sound/art shows and community events such as the annual Cape to Cabot Road Race.

3.2 Special Characteristics of Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site

Most visitors feel that its geographic location is what makes the Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS unique. However, it is the combination of its geographical location, its rugged natural beauty, historical features and people which makes the site truly special. Here on a piece of land jutting out into the North Atlantic is almost everything that visitors travelling to Newfoundland and Labrador are expecting to experience: outstanding natural experiences, rich maritime history and cultural connections.

Fog, wind and waves merge at this rocky headland setting the stage for elemental almost spiritual experiences that include:

  • Standing at the most easterly point look-out visitors feel like they are at the edge of the world;
  • Experiencing awe and wonder as a whale emerges from the black depths of the waters off-shore,;
  • Wandering the coastal trails while taking in the panoramic views of the vast Atlantic Ocean and scanning the horizon for majestic icebergs that come from a world awa;, and
  • Contemplating the life left behind while enjoying the peace, quiet and solitude at a place that offers a break from the stresses of modern life.

Vestiges of war and a maritime lightkeeping history set the stage for a deeper understanding of the importance of this place to Canadians through experiences that include:

  • Exploring the passages and vaults of the battery complex built here at this outpost during the Second World War;
  • Climbing the ridge to the lighthouse and gazing out onto the same seascape that generations of lightkeepers have kept watch over;
  • Stepping into the past through a tour of the authentically restored and re-furnished 1836 lighthouse.

Through personal connections, Parks Canada staff, gift shop staff and Coast Guard Alumni volunteers all add a little something to the experience of each person they encounter. Guests leave with memories of the enthusiasm and knowledge of the Parks Canada tour guide, the dedication of the former light keeper and even the unique and captivating dialect of the Gift Shop attendant.

It is not just the opportunities for experiences that are facilitated on the site that make it special. Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS is an integral part of the broader tourism region and its coastal experiences. The site’s connection to the East Coast Trail and its location so close to St. John’s means that it has emerged as a starting point for visitors exploring the east coast of Newfoundland and Labrador on foot, by car or on a tour bus.

3.3 Current Audience

In 2009 almost 145,000 people visited Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS during operational hours (10 a.m. – 6 p.m.) from June 1 to October 15. Recent Parks Canada surveys show that 87% of site visitors are adults and most are from Ontario, Quebec and the western provinces. Just over 70% of people who responded to Parks Canada surveys were on their first visit to the site. In essence, this means that Cape Spear attracts many people who haven’t been there before; however, the site remains a local favourite among area residents whose visitation has remained stable. The average visit length was almost 2 hours (115 minutes), so visitors are spending a considerable amount of time on-site.

4.0 State of the Site

4.1 Heritage Protection

Heritage protection involves ensuring that all of the site’s cultural resources and their associated heritage values are respected. Cultural resources at Parks Canada administered sites are the tangible resources that allow people to connect to Canada’s history in real ways. Parks Canada’s mandate and strategic outcome direct that these resources are enjoyed in ways that leave them unimpaired for this and future generations.

Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS contains accessible buildings, features and historic objects associated with its lightkeeping and its Second World War defence histories. Along with these are remnants of original structures and marks on the landscape that are associated with the site’s historic uses as well as potential archaeological resources associated with the site’s lightkeeping and Second World War histories.

A 2008 Commemorative Integrity Evaluation of the site rated the condition of its cultural resources and identified the principal threats and challenges facing them. Overall their condition was rated "Good" with some impairment. The principal threats facing the site’s structures are related to the site’s exposure to extreme climatic conditions. For the site’s wooden structures, fire is always a threat, however that risk has been deemed to be low. For buildings and structures containing metal, corrosion from marine salts and moisture is a continual risk. Likewise, the exposed concrete of the Second World War features are threatened by water infiltration and subsequent freeze-thaw cycles.

The 1836 lighthouse and some structural remains around it are directly associated with the site’s national historic significance and are therefore Level 1 cultural resources. The building is rated as a "Classified" heritage building according to the Federal Heritage Building Review Office (FHBRO). The building’s exposure to constant moisture, high winds, ice and salts has meant a high level of maintenance is required. Likewise the exposure of the metal lantern to these conditions means cyclical restoration is necessary. Overall the building is now in Good and stable condition and is expected to continue in its current state. Now in the final stages of development, a Conservation and Maintenance Plan that builds on over twenty years of experience caring for the lighthouse will fully integrate its maintenance into the Field Unit’s up-to-date asset management and monitoring program.

The former lightkeepers residence that was adapted for retail and exhibit uses is a Level II cultural resource (i.e. not directly related to the site’s national historic significance.) because it possesses historic values related to the site’s continued lightkeeping history. It is stable and listed in "Good" condition.

The Second World War Battery complex which is also a Level II cultural resource was rated in 2008 as being in "Fair" condition, however, it has deteriorated since then. Even though preventive high end maintenance and repairs have been undertaken, the complex’s structural integrity is now an issue. This was born out of following a round of testing completed in 2010, resulting in the closure of a portion of the covered trenches to ensure visitor safety.

Many of the site’s landscape vestiges and archaeological remains have not been professionally inventoried. There have been no significant developments in the areas that these resources occur, consequently they are not considered to be under threat or impaired. To enable Parks Canada to facilitate learning about them or to facilitate upgrades to the site’s infrastructure, these resources need to be inventoried and better understood.

4.2 Connection to Place

Connection to place is a concept that reflects the relevance of protected heritage places to Canadians. It expresses the emotional, intellectual and spiritual attachment that Canadians feel toward a heritage place and is derived from their own personal experiences at a particular site. To achieve its strategic outcome, Parks Canada would like people to feel a sense of connection to their treasured national heritage places by visiting them and experiencing them first hand. Meaningful connections can also be developed by learning about the sites in other ways or by being involved or supportive of the protection of sites like Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC. The existing state of Canadian’s connection to Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS is reflected in the state of its visitor experience, the state of public appreciation and understanding and the state of meaningful engagement and involvement in the site. The following sections examine the key elements that facilitate connection to place.

4.2.1 State of Visitor Experience

The large percentage of first time visitors who travel to Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS to see and experience Canada’s most easterly point -- are not disappointed. Social science research indicates that most visitors (93%) enjoy the site. It further indicates that their enjoyment is directly related to their expectations for dramatic and unique coastal experiences. They are finding out about the site primarily through provincial tourism materials and once in the St. John’s area by word of mouth from local tourism agencies, staff at other attractions and local residents. For the most part new visitors are not aware of its historical offerings before they journey to the site. However, they are pleasantly surprised by them when they arrive.

Visitors travelling to eastern Newfoundland are attracted by the rugged picturesque coastlines, the presence of whales and icebergs, the region’s rich history and its vibrant culture. As a jumping-off point for further exploration of the Avalon Peninsula, Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC has the potential to meet all of these out-of-province visitors’ expectations. In fact, the site is increasingly seen as one of the most accessible venues to take-in all that visitors who come to the province expect to see and experience. The site’s location and its prominence in provincial tourism marketing campaigns, in particular the Provincial Department of Tourism’s 2013 national TV advertisements and on-line vignette, will afford Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS a high degree of visibility nationally and will, we believe, add to the site’s profile and visitation. The expectation is that this visibility will only increase into the future as a result of the success of the current provincial tourism campaign which targets travellers looking for unique natural and cultural attractions to explore. An additional boast to the region will undoubtedly come from the international recognition the Avalon Peninsula region received in 2010 with its rating as number one on the National Geographic Traveler magazine’s annual geo-tourism survey of preferred worldwide coastal destinations. In addition, the new partnership between Parks Canada, CPAWS, National Geographic, the Province, the City of St. John’s and other private sector provincial partners in the development of a new product, the National Geographic Geotourism website and MapGuide for the Eastern Newfoundland Region will also increase the region’s and the site’s profile provincially, nationally and internationally.

While there has been an increase in the number of out-of-province visitors, visitation by residents has not grown proportionately. The site remains a good location for short excursions for adult family groups especially on summer weekends. Local enthusiasts such as birders, whale watchers and hikers all enjoy specific aspects of the site and tend to visit the site throughout the year. However, there has been little success in attracting and engaging young people and families with children. This is reflected in information collected through the fee payment system and also site surveys that show a trend towards smaller groups --comprised of mostly adults. Yet Signal Hill NHS, located nearby, which draws from the same local audience, has successfully attracted many families with children through regular on-site events and performances as well as interactive programs. Stakeholder consultations indicate that upgrades to some facilities and services such as more picnic areas and the provision of food service would make the site more family-friendly.

Although visitor studies indicate that most people are touring and enjoying the site on their own, they are availing of the site’s essential services and facilities to do so. The large number of people visiting the site, using the washrooms or picnic facilities and traversing the trails is taking its toll on the assets and the natural features. Recent surveys determined that these services did not meet Parks Canada’s corporate performance expectations and welcoming visitors to the site upon arrival and making them aware of its offerings and the potential hazards a coastal location like Cape Spear represent are areas which need improvement. This is especially important at this site where 73% of the people are visiting for the first time and are not familiar with its historical offerings or the hazards inherent in venturing too close to the coastline.

In terms of programs and activities the quality of most of the Parks Canada facilitated activities were rated high by visitors who participated in them. Visitors felt that more could be done with the Second World War Battery and they indicated that there are opportunities for new interpretive activities and programs focusing on the Second World War history, the whales and icebergs and the development of one-of-a-kind events and evening activities.

One of the Parks Canada facilitated activities that visitors rated high for enjoyment is the step-back-in-time tour of the 1836 lighthouse. The tour, which is available during the site’s operational hours, is where most visitors learn about the lighthouse’s national historic significance. Determining if visitors are learning about the site’s history is one way Parks Canada can measure whether visitors are connecting to the site in meaningful ways. Social science research and Parks Canada’s evaluations related to commemorative integrity show that the site is not yet meeting corporate expectations in this area. Although the tour is well received, visitors do not know about it before they arrive. Once at the site, the distance from the other site attractions, the entrance fee and its exposed location (at the summit of the ridge) limits visitation to the 1836 lighthouse. As a result only a small percentage of site visitors are getting to the 1836 lighthouse and learning about its history.

While the location of the 1836 lighthouse makes it difficult to facilitate learning, the location of interpretive panels near the eastern edge represents opportunities to present the many different stories related to the lighthouse and other aspects of the site’s history. Of all on-site interpretive activities offered, surveys show that those near the most easterly point were the most popular. Consequently, this is an area where the potential for the greatest source of learning and promotion of the site’s other key messages can take place.

Visitors are spending more time at the site than they have in the past and as a result the provision of food and beverages has become an issue consistently identified by visitors in surveys as a way to improve their experience. Since 2002 there has been a 22% increase in the percentage of visitors who spend more than 1 ½ hours at the site. Consultations during this management plan review determined that the provision of food and beverages would also support more stakeholder and partner involvement in events and activities. Evening events, festivals, and activities involving families and children would also benefit from the availability of some type of food service. Most felt that there is an opportunity to enhance the site’s cultural experience by making local foods that reflect Newfoundland’s rich culture available.

Although visitors would like to see some improvements to facilities and more going on at the site in terms of interpretive activities, events and food service, they do not want to see developments that detract from the site’s natural beauty. The rugged scenery, landscape and viewplanes were all elements repeatedly identified by visitors as important to their enjoyment of the site.

4.2.2 State of Public Appreciation and Understanding

Public appreciation and understanding encompasses those elements that serve to extend Parks Canada’s reach to Canadians in their communities and to broaden Parks Canada’s base of support by providing opportunities for stakeholders and partners to be engaged and involved in activities that are meaningful to them.

Stakeholder and Partner Engagement

In general, stakeholder and partner engagement and involvement at Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS are higher than they have ever been in the past. Parks Canada staff are involved with the tourism industry and regional associations coordinating with them on such initiatives as marketing, special events and celebrations. In recent years there has been a focus on developing programs for the expanding Newfoundland and Labrador cruise ship industry. The increase in cruise ship visits represent an opportunity to increase visitation to the site by developing, in consultation with artists, musicians, local tour operators, restaurants and other businesses, enhanced programs and activities.

On site, Parks Canada staff work with the Canadian Coast Guard Alumni Association (CGAA) and the Historic Sites’ Association of Newfoundland and Labrador (HSANL) to coordinate opening times and hours of operation of the Lighthouse Art Gallery and the site’s Gift Shop. As well, Parks Canada extended the coastal trail that traverses the perimeter of the site linking it to the East Coast Trail. Together these efforts ensure that visitors have a seamless experience while visiting the various attractions both on the site, within its enclave and beyond its boundaries.

Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS is increasingly being seen as an inviting location for staging community events. For instance in recent years site staff have worked with a local group to host the "Cape to Cabot Run" - a 20 km road race from Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS to Cabot Tower at Signal Hill NHS. In June 2011 the site hosted its first annual Whale Festival – an idea that emerged from consultations for this management plan. Involvement in such events raises the profile of the site, contributes to a sense of pride amongst local residents and promotes the site as a community-gathering location. Because of its unique location the site has been home to temporary art installations and sunrise breakfasts and a preferred location and venue for one-of-a-kind musical performances as part the St. John’s biannual International Sound Symposium.

Public Outreach Initiatives

Parks Canada’s main vehicle for providing outreach opportunities for Canadians to discover and learn about Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS is through the Parks Canada website. The Parks Canada Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS website is targeted to a wide variety of audiences and provides an introduction to the site, a short history and information about the site’s natural and cultural resources. It also contains links to the Fisheries and Oceans Canada Coast Guard website for those seeking more information about the contemporary light tower at Cape Spear as well as other lighthouses in Newfoundland and Labrador.

Events at the site attracting local and national media attention, also serve to extend Parks Canada’s reach to non-visiting audiences. National kick-offs and cross country marathons, such as the 2011 Rick Hanson 25th anniversary Man in Motion Marathon and the 2009 Olympic Torch relay, often start at Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS. They provide Parks Canada with opportunities to impart the iconic values of the site to Canadians in their own homes and communities.

The site’s partners, the Canadian Coast Guard Alumni Association and the Historic Sites Association of Newfoundland and Labrador are also engaged in outreach activities working with school audiences to provide in-class programs, site visits, heritage fairs, and publications.

4.3 Challenges and Opportunities

Second World War Battery Complex –Consisting of two large gun emplacements and connecting vaults and tunnels, the complex is nearing the end of its life cycle despite concerted efforts to slow its deterioration. Finding ways and resources to conserve the complex is one of the site’s major challenges. As one of the site’s most visited features, visitors are drawn to the complex and intrigued by its history. During public consultations stakeholders and partners expressed concern about the deteriorating condition of the bunkers. Building on this interest and informed by the types of experiences that visitors are seeking, Parks Canada will seek ways to deliver on its mandate by integrating potential new visitor experiences with heritage conservation objectives for the complex. For example the complex’s interior spaces provide excellent opportunities for the provision of interpretive, interactive and educational programs in a location sheltered from the site’s exposed environment.

Awareness and Understanding of National Historic Significance – Parks Canada needs to make the 1836 lighthouse a key visitor experience by revitalizing the lighthouse program and its promotional activities to better appeal to the site’s existing and potential audiences. Social science research indicates that there is significant interest in unique and unusual events that would add mystique and facilitate a greater emotional experience. Interactive activities such as traditional meals, ghost walks, candlelit tours and storytelling sessions inside the lighthouse provide opportunities for visitors to not only learn about the site’s history but to participate in unique and memorable activities. Research also shows that visitors are interested in learning about the cultural aspects of the site’s history. Stories, ballads, music and activities related to the lifestyle of light keeping families all have the potential to create meaningful connections and an increased awareness and understanding of the site’s national historic significance.

Attracting Families and Children

Attracting young families and providing services and facilitating activities that they are interested in and can enjoy is a challenge. The site’s rugged landscape, exposed environment and paucity of indoor space make it difficult to offer programs and activities that meet the needs of young families. Developing family-related services, such as dedicated picnic areas, a food service and regular on-site activities such as musical performances are ways to bring, and keep families and children coming to the site.

Stakeholder and Partner Engagement

Apart from engaging partners and stakeholders in activities that Parks Canada has been interested in pursuing, the focus until now has been on accommodating requests from others within a very narrow framework focused on Parks Canada’s objectives for the site. For the future, Parks Canada’s approach to engaging stakeholders and new partners must change for the site to become more relevant to a wider audience. Greater efforts will need to be made to proactively reach out to the community and communities of interest to involve them in ways they want and in activities that they are interested in pursuing. By facilitating opportunities for new and non-traditional visitor experiences and community uses, opportunities for meaningful connections will be made and lead to increased support for the site.

Public Outreach Education

Parks Canada is working to enhance awareness and relevance of Canada’s national historic sites amongst Canadians. Given the rapidly growing audience using the internet for information, websites, new media and social networks all provide opportunities to generate increased awareness and understanding about the site and potential to reach audiences across the province, the country and even the world. Our priority is to reach out to new audiences, particularly the local new Canadians community and audiences in Canada’s major urban centres. Cape Spear’s unique geographic location as the most easterly point of land in North America and its role as a favourite location for cross-Canada and national ‘kick-off’ events provides opportunities to work with partners to develop programs and activities and to attract national media coverage of the site. The site’s iconic status also makes it a preferred location for cultural events of all kinds. The challenge we now face is to provide facilities and services to support and enhance such events, to engage the local new Canadians community and include them in planning for these events and to make potential sponsors aware of our interest in offering the site as a venue for a host of activities.

Creating Community Connections

Closer to home, it is now time for Parks Canada to reach-out to area residents to facilitate new connections. While area residents are the site’s biggest promoters, making up a large percentage of visitors to the site – enjoying its whale watching and hiking activities- there are opportunities to do more to foster community interest and support community involvement in the site. For meaningful engagement to take place Parks Canada must provide opportunities and be willing to engage area residents on the basis of their needs and interests as well as those of the site. Social science research shows that providing new services, such as a food offer and promoting the site as a venue for musical and theatrical activities as well as evening events which take advantage of the unique natural and historic features, will attract local audiences and help to solidify community support for the site.

Meeting Market Expectations

Newfoundland and Labrador is one of the most unique and compelling tourism destinations in Canada. Parks Canada’s major marketing partner, the Province of Newfoundland and Labrador has pursued an extremely successful tourism campaign which has turned into a tremendous opportunity for the site in terms of attracting visitors. In particular, their latest television and on-line campaign features the site and brings its message to potential visitors across the province, the country and the world. The campaign is based on the promotion of Newfoundland and Labrador as a place set apart from the ordinary, a place offering unique cultural and geographic experiences by promoting the province’s dramatic coastlines (including the presence of icebergs and whales), its rich history and its vibrant and creative culture. Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS has the potential to meet all of the expectations of the out-of-province market. Visitors want to experience and learn about Newfoundland and Labrador’s rich and vibrant culture and to do so in unique awe-inspiring places –Cape Spear has the potential to offer that. There are opportunities to better meet market expectations by facilitating more in the way of cultural activities and events, by offering experiential programs and by incorporating aspects of Newfoundland’s culture into learning activities and programs.

However, there remain opportunities to increase visitation and revenue generation at the site. One of the key challenges for revenue generation at Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS is the lack of a clearly identifiable main entrance and fee collection point. As a result, visitors currently access the site through a number of different entry points. A new, clearly identified orientation node with a fee collection point and site program information will be established next to the main parking lot to create a sense of welcome for guests and provide opportunities to raise additional revenue for the site.

In keeping with the Agency’s direction to involve a wider range of partners in activities at National Historic Sites, Parks Canada will explore additional opportunities to offer new, innovative programs and events at Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS through strategic partnering arrangements with the for-profit and not-for-profit sectors. The site’s unique location and large number of visitors create excellent opportunities to attract new partners, build enhanced programming and increase sources of revenue. As social science research indicates visitors are willing to pay for specific types of enhanced programs, there may also be further opportunities for Parks Canada to offer activities that meet market interests on a cost recovery basis. The challenge will be to proactively attract new partners and to strategically upgrade the services and facilities required to support the site’s new programs and activities.

5.0 Vision

In the future Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS will be well known as a powerful and inspirational place where people connect on a personal level with the natural forces, history and culture of Canada’s most easterly point and in doing so discover something within themselves. The eastern-most tip will be a place where people feel a sense of wonder. The 1836 lighthouse will be a place where visitors not only learn about the lighthouse but also get a sense of what life for those who lived and worked there was like. Children will find Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC to be a place of wonder as they play, explore and learn about the site and its natural wonders. Area residents will feel a special sense of pride and connection to the site and will continue to be its greatest ambassadors. Occasionally the site will transform into a gathering place for spectacular performances or cross country events – and will be known nation-wide as the place where the sun dawns first in Canada. Yet for the thousands of people visiting for the first time the site will maintain its elemental feel, its natural beauty and its timelessness.

The vision statement for Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site provides a foundation for the management plan. The following draws a picture of what the site may be like through the experience of one of its visitors:

The cell phone buzzes -- a message from a friend on summer holidays. "I’m at Cape Spear, the edge of the world. You’ve got to see this..." An image loads on the screen, the stunning orange of the summer sunset contrasting the steel blue-grey of the ocean. In the foreground, your friend’s smile mirrors the bulking enormity of a Humpback whale plummeting back into the waves. You read on your travel website, that Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS has just been coined one of the top ten places in Canada to visit. The itch for adventure has begun.

Descending the last hill on your approach to the site the vastness of the Atlantic Ocean is broken by the glistening of sailboats - no these are icebergs, giant mountains drifting slowly past the rugged coastline. Atop the spine of this powerful landscape is the old lighthouse which now serves as a beacon to world travellers guiding them to Canada’s most easterly national historic site. Emerging from your car, the rugged landscape, damp fog and powerful wind make you pause to think if you are ready for this? But the Tweet you received said that four whales were spotted today. Your hesitation is lifted by a cheerful "Hello, Bonjour!" There is much to do at the site today, but first the most easterly point and the whales beckon – they are after all what drew you from so far away.

As you draw closer to the gathering place at the trail’s end you notice, far from the crashing waves, a saltwater fountain and a pool carved out of a boulder - the source of children’s giggles and shrieks. They are experiencing Canada’s most easterly point first-hand – or more correctly feet-first, dipping their toes in the cool pools of saltwater that has been piped to this safe location. Out in the bay a different shriek draws your eye. A frenzied tangle of seabirds mark the spot where whales are feeding -- doing what they have done for thousands of years, oblivious to what is happening on land. Transfixed by the vastness of the ocean before you, by the ancient ice sculptures and the rhythm of waves crashing on the red rocks below, time slows and all those expectations you had fall away and you realize this is what you were really looking for.

The cool damp air takes hold urging you to move on, you know there is more to do. The crack of coastal guns, the shouts and hurried footsteps of soldiers echo out through the vents and openings of the concrete bunkers at your back. Seeking shelter from the wind you are drawn into its tunnels where a lively vignette is being performed. Nibbling marsh-berry cake and sipping a hot chocolate made with war-rationed tinned milk, you are transported to a time when keeping watch for giant mammals was trivial compared to scanning the horizon for German Wolf Packs, the deadly U-Boats that threatened these shores. Separated from their families, in a foreign land, the soldiers’ loneliness was lightened only by the folks who shared the cape with them --the Cantwell family of lightkeepers. Emerging from the battery complex, a small crowd climbs the steps to the lighthouse, following the tinny sound of a harmonium drifting from the house.

You have spent almost a full day exploring this place. A winding hiking trail beckons you to follow south along the coast, but you are not yet ready to leave. You notice some equipment being moved and a tent set up. You remember the Tweet and the colourful events sign, tomorrow is the start of the Annual Whale and Waves festival. You’ll be back, not wanting to miss the chance to see the sun rise first on the continent and to celebrate the annual return to this place of these majestic creatures. There’ll be musicians, artists and crafts people and there’s the coastal hiking trail. Besides you are starting to feel a special connection to this place...

6.0 Key Strategies

The site’s vision statement establishes the future direction for Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS and will guide its management over the next 15 years. To deliver on the vision for the site four key strategies have been developed. They define the directions that need to be taken to strategically deal with the challenges and opportunities that will help us achieve the vision for the site. They reflect a new direction for the site’s management that focuses on making Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS more relevant to Canadians by offering a unique venue in which to create and facilitate programs, activities and opportunities for meaningful experiences. In implementing these strategies the delivery of all elements of the Parks Canada mandate will be accomplished in an integrated way. For example, actions and decisions related to heritage protection will support the new vision for the site while ensuring that cultural resources remain unimpaired for future generations. Likewise, infrastructure developments at the site from benches to garbage cans and hand rails will incorporate interpretive opportunities in their design, and interpretive elements, such as panels, signage and works of art, will draw inspiration for their design from the natural and historic elements of the site.

Key Strategy 1: Increasing collaborations towards a greater variety of visitor experiences and programs

Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS’s unique location and park infrastructure make it a highly valued location for activities, events and ceremonies. Working from this premise the focus of this strategy is to join forces and work with others to revitalize and enliven the site by pursing new, innovative and captivating visitor experiences. We will learn from others, we will facilitate the involvement of others and we will develop new and existing partnerships with the goal of providing a greater variety of programs, activities and experiences that visitors want to see at the site.

Targets

We will know this strategy has been successful when:

  • There is an increase from 2009 in the percentage of stakeholders and partners who feel they have opportunities to influence and contribute to Parks Canada’s activitiesFootnote 4
  • There is an increase in the number of partners and stakeholders involved with the site since 2012.Footnote 5

Objective

Potential partners see reasons to partner with Parks Canada, facilitating new opportunities to be explored, developed and become a reality.

Action

  • Identify opportunities for collaboration, packaging and promotion with potential partners and sponsors.
  • Review and customize site products and programs based on what tour operators are seeking for their clients.
  • Evaluate the feasibility of new visitor experiences, services, products and partnerships (lighthouse lantern access, food service).

Objective

Partnerships for new programs and activities are developed.

Action

  • Facilitate annual Round Table forums to share information, engage potential partners to get their perspectives and ideas, evaluate Parks Canada’s performance and to generally improve relationships and communications.
  • Plan an event that will act as a catalyst to attract new partners (projecting a new site image and announcing that the site is open for new partnerships).
  • Be proactive in identifying new partners, e.g. seek corporate partnerships for special events and for the development of the facilities and/or services to support them.
  • In collaboration with potential partners and sponsors identify opportunities for new programs and activities.

Objective

The site’s programs and activities are promoted more effectively.

Action

  • Find creative ways to enhance Parks Canada’s visibility in partner programs (coupons, souvenirs, packages).

Key Strategy 2: Providing the essentials to facilitate enjoyable experiences and meet visitor expectations.

The intent of this strategy is to respond to the needs and demands of the large number of people who are visiting the site, particularly in the peak season. To this end, improvements will be required to some services and facilities to increase the site’s capability to facilitate family activities, community gatherings and special events.

The reason for these improvements is to provide the essentials to facilitate opportunities for enjoyable outdoor experiences. Providing shelter for visitors, upgrading the washrooms, improving signage and developing a food service capacity are a few of the services and facilities that visitors and stakeholders consider essential to better support their enjoyment of and connection to the site.

Targets

We will know this strategy has been successful when:

  • 90% of visitors are satisfied and 50% are very satisfied with their visit through VIPs.

Objective

Awareness of the site’s offerings, orientation and way-finding is improved.

Action

  • Develop a complete menu of opportunities for a range of traveller types based on the outcomes of the EQ Values Opportunities Matching Workshop.
  • Develop marketing and promotional materials based on the menu of opportunities identified above.
  • Develop an orientation node that provides a menu of opportunities for targeted traveller types.
  • Upgrade on-site directional signage and interpretive media to better suit the interests of key traveller types.

Objective

The site’s essential services and facilities are upgraded to accommodate the number of people visiting, now and in the future.

Action

  • Assess the condition and capacity of the washroom facility, trails, look-outs and picnic areas to meet existing and future needs of visitors including the needs of young families.
  • Prepare a site development plan that identifies areas/elements requiring upgrading as well as new elements to meet existing and future visitors’ needs (e.g. for new activities and events).
  • Prepare a development strategy that will enable Parks Canada to focus its capital plan on essential services and that identifies opportunities for the involvement of partners and stakeholders for infrastructure development that will serve to broaden the site’s appeal and increase audience numbers.

Objective

Visitor experience opportunities for the most easterly point are more fully developed and enabled.

Action

  • In consultation with tourism stakeholders, partners and potential partners define the role of and develop a design for the most easterly point area that will meet the demands and expectations for this unique place. Consideration should be given to the iconic values of the location, facilitation of a range of experiences for various targeted traveller types, photo opportunities, interpretive media and potential to accommodate events and activities.

Objective

Revenue generation and sustainability are improved.

Action

  • Revisit the fee structure and develop a revenue strategy that focuses on new sources of revenue involving new partners including: program and event fees, site venue rental fees and special events.

Objective

Shelter is provided for visitors using a holistic approach.

Action

  • Within the context of interpretive planning and site planning, identify and develop places on the site that are sheltered from the elements and incorporate sheltering elements into design of interpretive nodes, rest areas, picnic areas etc.

Key Strategy 3: Embracing the site’s physical realities to facilitate enhanced visitor experiences

Cape Spear’s exposed coastal environment and limited indoor space restrict the types of programs that can be offered – yet it is the exposed coastal environment that visitors want to experience and it is the heritage structures that contain the restricted spaces that provide the best opportunity for Parks Canada to facilitate learning about them and their history.

The focus of this strategy is to turn the site’s physical challenges into opportunities for programs and activities that visitors are interested in and to facilitate activities for children and families. For example programs and activities will be developed that celebrate and interpret the natural forces that influence the site. Cape Spear is a fantastic place to connect with and understand wind, waves, icebergs, fog and to understand the hazards associated with the North Atlantic coastline. As well, physically inaccessible features such as the lighthouse lantern or the Battery’s tunnels could be made accessible by offering limited capacity specially guided programs. Even the site’s lack of night lighting makes it an excellent location for star gazing, light shows, and campfire or haunted-hike type programs. Embracing and redefining experiences based on the site’s physical and natural realities will allow people to connect more deeply with it at its most elemental level and in more authentic ways.

Targets

We will know this strategy has been successful when:

  • There is an increase in the percentage of visitors who feel they learned from their experience and active participation from a baseline to be established.Footnote 6
  • There is an increase in the numbers of children, young people and families visiting the site and participating in on-site activities and programs from the baseline established in the 2007 VIP.
  • 90% of visitors enjoy their visit.
  • There is an increase in the percentage of visitors who understand and appreciate the site’s hazardous warning messages from the baseline established in 2007 VIP.

Objective

Programs and activities are offered that focus on the site’s natural forces and natural history.

Action

  • Develop an interpretation plan that incorporates programs, activities and media that focus on the site’s coastal environment and natural forces.
  • Consult artists, non-traditional partners and stakeholders in the development of the site’s interpretation plan.
  • Look for interpretive opportunities which explore ways that wind, fog, weather, waves, and the hazards they present along the coastline are understood by visitors.
  • Identify opportunities for involvement of partners and stakeholders in new activities and programs.
  • Consult with partners, stakeholders and artistic/ cultural communities to determine their interest in evening/after dark activities and events.

Objective

Access is provided to the lighthouse lantern.

Action

  • Incorporate access to the lighthouse lantern into an interpretive program or speciality activity/event

Objective

Facilities and services are provided to accommodate new activities and programs in ways that does not impair the site’s natural and cultural landscape and associated experiences.

Action

  • Explore conservation/rehabilitation options for the Second World War Battery complex that will enable interior spaces to be used for interpretive activities, programming and events.
  • Explore options for temporary structures for short term activities such as concerts, festivals and special events.
  • Embed new services for events and other new programs underground.

Objective

Facilities and services are provided to accommodate new activities and programs in ways that does not impair the site’s natural and cultural landscape and associated experiences.

Action

  • Ensure that the design, colour, size, shape and massing of any new man-made features reflect and are visually compatible with the natural and cultural heritage values of the site.
  • Explore opportunities and feasibility of developing an accommodation offer at the Cape Spear Lighthouse.
  • Explore options in consultation with artistic and cultural groups for new programs and activities inside the 1836 lighthouse and the Second World War battery.

Objective

Opportunities are provided for learning about the site’s national historic significance at easily accessible locations.

Action

  • Explore ways to facilitate learning about the 1836 lighthouse at the locations that visitors frequent (i.e. arrival area and near the most easterly point).
  • Redevelop the orientation node so as to ensure clear messages associated with the site’s National Significance are presented.
  • Explore ways to expand and enhance the most easterly point to present and reinforce the site’s main messages.

Objective

Interpretation is augmented using new media.

Action

  • Explore and develop new electronic media opportunities for on-site visitors, e.g. augmented reality applications and the use of QR (quick response) codes.

Objective

The site is safe and accessible for a wide range of visitors.

Action

  • Consider public safety and mitigate safety risks when planning new activities, events, services and infrastructure.
  • Update the site’s public safety plan as new activities, events, services and infrastructure are introduced to the site.
  • Make use of new media opportunities to encourage visitors to enjoy the site safely.

Key Strategy 4: Sharing the Passion: Giving Voice and Form to the Spirit of Place

Founded in the site’s ability to inspire, this strategy focuses on facilitating connections to Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC through arts and cultural activities that give voice and form to the spirit of place. Artwork, stories, songs, poetry, dance and even the culinary arts will all be used to articulate the essence of the site and facilitate connections to it in new ways.

With access to a vibrant local arts community and a culture that visitors want to immerse themselves in, one of the directions for this strategy is for Parks Canada to facilitate the involvement of artistic and cultural communities and other non-traditional partners in all aspects of site development including, planning, activities, programs and events.

Acknowledging that visitors find inspiration in the site, the second direction for this strategy is to facilitate visitors sharing with visitors. There are two points of focus to this direction. First, with increased access to cameras, video and social media, Parks Canada will explore ways to capture creative works and information that visitors are generating to facilitate sharing it with other visitors as well as the wider national and international community. The second focus is to explore ways in which we can capture the passion and interest of local residents’ and interest groups who frequent the site, and facilitate their connection to current non-visitors, visitors and new audiences.

Targets

We will know this strategy has been successful when:

  • There is an increase in the number of visitors who participate in events and activities from the baseline established in 2007 VIP.
  • There is an increase in the number of visitors who enjoyed their visit from the baseline established in 2007 VIP.
  • There is an increase in the number of visitors who consider the place meaningful to them.Footnote 7
  • There is a year-to-year increase in the number of ‘arts-related’ programs and activities taking place annually at the site.

Objective

Artists, musicians, poets and others in the cultural sector and play an active role at the site.

Action

  • Continue to maintain communications and interest established during management plan consultations and engage representatives of the arts and cultural communities to identify and pursue new site-inspired initiatives.
  • Proactively undertake one to two events each year involving artistic and/or cultural communities.
  • Provide opportunities for representatives of arts and cultural communities to provide input into site development plans and programs.

Objective

Inspired interpretation of the site’s Lightkeeping and Defence stories is provided.

Action

  • Work in collaboration with artistic and cultural groups to develop and facilitate outstanding visitor experiences associated with the 1836 lighthouse by, for example, introducing elements of storytelling, music and costumed interpretation in the lighthouse.
  • Collaborate with professional artists and culturalists in the development of activities and programs that serve to facilitate learning about the site’s lightkeeping and defence history in creative and inspirational ways.
  • Through the story of lightkeeping and defence explore ways to represent the hazards associated with the site and to relay this to visitors in an interesting, informative and interactive way.

Objective

Visitors make connections to other visitors.

Action

  • Work in collaboration with partners and stakeholders to develop and offer a public art show, youth photo/video contest or some other such activity or forum to facilitate visitors sharing creative works with other visitors.
  • Explore ways to establish, maintain and make visitors aware of an electronic venue i.e. Face Book, Twitter or other social media, where visitors can submit and have access to creative works and information generated by other visitors.

Objective

The site’s potential as a community gathering place for cultural and other events is optimized.

Action

  • Determine the types and scale of events that can be best hosted at the site with consideration to commemorative integrity, infrastructure requirements, public safety, revenue potential, staffing etc. Events could include national kick-offs, concerts, festivals, theatrical performances and more.
  • Identify facilities and services required to host special events and develop a site plan that incorporates facilities and services required for special events/gatherings.
  • Seek partners and sponsors for special events and the facilities/services to support them.
  • In partnership with local operators and other heritage tourism attractions develop packages and concentrate on promoting them.

Objective

Public outreach initiatives broadened and diversified.

Action

  • Encourage activities and facilitate events and programs that attract national interest and media attention.
  • Pursue programs and activities such as artist in residence, writer’s workshops, recorded performances etc. that will result in products that increase awareness of the site for local and national audiences.
  • Pursue new ways to connect with youth groups in the province and country (via new media, video-conferencing, web cams, on-line role playing, remote weather stations etc.)
  • Manage and maintain the site’s website and social media venues, refreshing their content and format to ensure they are up-to-date and are relevant.
  • Upon requests from site partners, the Historic Sites Association and Canadian Coast Guard Alumni Association, assist with their school outreach programs.

7.0 Area Management

To focus site planning and to support the key strategies outlined above, this plan proposes an area management approach be adopted. The plan is based on a central arrival area and three distinct management areas distinguished by the landscapes they occupy and the potential experiences and vision elements that can optimally be facilitated within them ( See Figure 3). This area management approach will enable Parks Canada to focus a variety of experiences and opportunities while providing Parks Canada with the guidance needed to strategically manage each area. These are the core areas that will be used for EQ Values-Opportunities Matching.

Figure 3: Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site - Management Areas

Management Area 1: Arrival and Orientation

This area which includes the main arrival area, public washrooms and Parks Canada information kiosk is to be improved to better meet the needs and expectations of arriving visitors. From the visitor’s perspective this area is their first impression of the site and of the services it has to offer. It sets the tone for their entire site experience. For many visitors who arrive only vaguely aware of the site’s offerings, it is the place where they can not only find out about the site’s offerings, but feel a sense of arrival and welcome. It will become the launch point for personal site experiences, experiences which visitors can tailor to their individual interests and the location where they can learn about the various site activities, programs and resources. It is also the place where their basic comfort needs are met before exploring the site, the area where safety messages are first delivered and the place they return upon their departure.

From Parks Canada’s perspective this area will be our guests’ first impression of the site and the area which will receive the greatest use. As the principal location for staff to greet, orient, collect fees and provide other services it will require the highest levels of maintenance, attention to detail and customer service from our staff so as to ensure that our guest’s first impression of the site is a welcoming and positive one.

As a central reception point for nearly all site visitors, this area presents Parks Canada with the best opportunity to connect to visitors in ways that will motivate them to learn and participate in activities. Messages and some interpretive programming related to the 1836 lighthouse and its national significance will first be imparted here. With an inspiring view of the 1836 lighthouse it is the place where all visitors can learn about its national historic significance and then choose the type of experience they are seeking.

The focus for heritage protection in this area is to ensure that the view planes remain unobstructed, especially those to the 1836 lighthouse, and that any development be compatible with the historic place.

Objective

Visitors feel a sense of arrival and welcome to the site.

Action

  • Upgrade and enhance the arrival area to better define the welcome point.

Objective

A menu of visitor opportunities is provided, enabling visitors to plan their site visit based on EQ profiles.

Action

  • Design and develop an orientation area that provides a menu of opportunities through non personal media.
  • Develop opportunities for visitors to plan their visit using new media applications i.e. (website- provide timely updates related to programs, activities, iceberg, whale and bird sightings).

Objective

Opportunities for visitors to explore the national historic significance of the site are highlighted.

Action

  • Provide an introduction to the site’s national historic significance through non-personal media.
  • Develop a gathering point or area where visitors congregate to begin/end a site tour or program.

Objective

Visitors are made aware of the site’s hazards and their responsibilities for their own safety.

Action

  • Incorporate effective messages related to public safety into the orientation area.
  • Use new media to reinforce and illustrate site hazards.
  • Explore ways to encourage safe visits to the site by continuing to develop creative signage on the landscape and in those hazardous areas where visitors sometimes wander.

Management Area 2: Eastern Edge

Containing the site’s most popular attractions -- the “most easterly point in North America”, access to the rugged coastline and the Second World War Coastal Defence Battery, the Eastern Edge management area also encompasses look-out points and a trail that loops back to the parking area from the most-easterly point. In terms of the site’s topography and land-use capability, this area contains the most useable outdoor space and unobstructed views of the ocean's edge from the arrival area. Visitors are drawn to this area because of the most easterly point, the coastline and because it contains the most accessible amenities.

Because it is so well used it is an area that provides tremendous opportunities for Parks Canada to connect with visitors in new ways. For example, it is where activities involving larger audiences can best be facilitated and therefore the place where amenities for groups could be made available. It is the area where the forces of nature can most easily be experienced, interpreted and the hazards associated with it understood and imparted. It is also the management area that encompasses the Second World War battery complex, an area with great potential for indoor programming and activity space.

The vast majority of people do not go beyond The Eastern Edge when they visit the site. As a result, it is important for Parks Canada to to ensure that opportunities for meaningful experiences, for predominant traveller types, are facilitated here and that there are opportunities to learn about the site’s national historic significance along this, our most used trail.

With so many opportunities there is also the risk that some visitor activities may detract from or limit other visitor experiences. It is therefore important that appropriate planning and design be undertaken in this area so as to facilitate a range of experiences, special events and programs and to optimize the revenue potential of the site.

The focus of heritage protection in this area is on conserving the Second World War complex and maintaining the character defining features and elements that comprise the cultural landscape.

Objective

The most easterly point location is enhanced.

Actions

  • Enlarge the gathering area at the most easterly point.
  • Actively seek partnerships with the local artistic community and the for-profit sector to assist in the development of the most easterly Point.

Objective

The heritage values associated with the Second World War Battery Complex are respected.

Actions

  • Continue to monitor, maintain and manage the two in-situ 10” coastal defence guns.
  • Identify the elements and features that contribute to the Second World War Battery Complex’s heritage value.
  • In concert with other management plan objectives, explore and evaluate conservation and adaptive re-use options for the Second World War Battery complex that conserves its heritage value and creates new visitor experience opportunities.
  • Communicate the heritage values of the Second World War Battery Complex through interpretive programs, costumed interpretation, interpretive media and other visitor experiences.

Objective

The heritage values associated with Second World War cultural landscape and vestiges are respected.

Actions

  • Identify and inventory cultural landscape features and landscape vestiges associated with the site’s defence history.
  • Monitor the cultural landscape resources associated with defence and respect their values in site planning and management.
  • Communicate the heritage values of the Second World War cultural landscape through interpretive programs, media or other visitor experiences.

Management Area 3: Lightkeepers’ Loop

Encompassing the ridge of the Cape Spear headland, this area contains most of the site’s Level I and Level II cultural resources that are associated with light keeping and the Canadian Coast Guard Agency enclave. This management area is less accessible and in the past has attracted fewer visitors than the Eastern Edge. However, this is the area where authentic experiences related to light keeping are best facilitated because it contains structures, a cultural landscape and view planes associated with them. Also, because it is less visited and higher in elevation, it is where experiences associated with those seeking solitude and distant views of the ocean are best facilitated. To support deep connections and create meaningful visitor experiences, objectives for this area are to develop unique, high quality and authentic activities that serve to immerse visitors in aspects of light keeping and maritime culture, and maintain the solitary lighthouse landscape.

Heritage protection objectives for this area include better understanding of and maintenance for the features and elements of the cultural landscape associated with light keeping and ensuring that the 1836 lighthouse remains unimpaired for future generations.

Objectives

The 1836 Lighthouse remains unimpaired for future generations.

Actions

  • Continue to monitor and maintain the 1836 lighthouse in accordance with its Conservation and Maintenance Plan.

Objectives

The heritage values of the Level ll cultural resources associated with lightkeeping are protected and communicated.

Actions

  • Explore opportunities and options for creative ways to tell the story of the lighthouse and maritime culture, through the use of engaging interpretation, new media, experiential programming and new technologies.
  • Inventory and document the cultural landscape features related to lightkeeping.
  • Monitor the resources associated with lightkeeping and respect their values in site planning and management.
  • Incorporate the evolution of the site’s lightkeeping history into interpretive programs and media.

Management Area 4: Coastal Continuum

This is a linear management area consisting of a traditional coastal trail that winds along the perimeter of the site. Portions of the trail within the Eastern Edge management area and Lightkeepers' Loop contain boardwalks, lookouts and stairs. The trail begins at the north-west boundary of the site and follows the coastline to the southern boundary. It connects to all of the site’s historical and natural attractions. Visitors choosing to expand their coastal hiking experience can continue along the trail at either boundary to connect to the East Coast Trail.

The goal of this management area is to protect the traditional coastal trail and facilitate opportunities for outstanding coastal experiences.

Objective

The heritage values associated with the coastal trail are respected.

Action

  • Ensure that the traditional coastal trail is distinguishable from the site’s other trails (i.e. use of materials, surfaces, width etc.)
  • Provide directional signs along the coastal trail particularly where it intersects with more popular site trails and walkways.

Objectives

Visitors enjoy safe coastal hiking experiences.

Actions

  • Provide information at the arrival area about the safety risks associated with the trail through both personal and non-personal media.
  • Provide information at the site’s boundaries to ensure visitors understand that they are leaving the Parks Canada administered site.
  • Work with the East Coast Trail Association and other partners to promote hiking –related programs, activities and an annual hiking event/festival.

8.0 Monitoring and Reporting

Management planning is not a static process. The management planning cycle incorporates a range of monitoring and evaluation activities to assess progress on management plan initiatives and to evaluate their effectiveness.

Annual management plan implementation reports record progress on management plan actions and assess how well the site is doing in reaching management plan objectives and outcomes. The state of site report provides an assessment of the site’s condition and trends in terms of its commemorative integrity, heritage resource protection, public education, facilitation of visitor experiences and connection to place and is done on a cyclical basis to align with the management planning cycle. It reports on progress being made in meeting corporate performance expectations and the Agency’s strategic outcome. It informs the management planning program and contributes to the Agency’s State of Protected Heritage Areas Report which reports on all sites administered by Parks Canada, and is presented in Parliament and hence to all Canadians every ten years.

Commemorative Integrity Evaluations are undertaken as part of the management planning cycle and when required to re-evaluate the condition of site elements that received "Poor" ratings. The evaluation rates the elements that contribute to the commemorative integrity of the site: condition of resources, effectiveness of communications and selected management practices. It also provides information to assist in planning and management about where the site’s strengths and weaknesses lie.

Visitor experience is evaluated through regular Visitor Experience Assessments and through Parks Canada’s Visitor Information Program (VIP). The VIP program gathers information from visitors relating to various performance and service indicators including national performance indicators. It measures the quality of programs and effectiveness in meeting visitor needs, expectations and interests from the visitor’s perspective. The VIP program is one of the principal ways that Parks Canada will determine whether many of the targets set out in this plan for such visitor experience elements such as enjoyment, participation, and learning are achieved.

Visitor attendance information is gathered through both the site’s point-of- sale system and attendance studies. These studies are undertaken periodically and provide information related to: numbers of visitors, and visitation patterns, (i.e. monthly, weekly, daily and hourly and visitation trends). Information collected through visitation studies will be used to measure targets set out in this plan that call for increases in visitation.

For public appreciation and understanding, the level of Canadian’s appreciation and understanding as well as stakeholder and partner involvement and support are measured through national surveys and a national registry. These will be augmented by site specific activities. For example the number of events that attract national media attention will be tracked. As well, the number of guests using web posts or accessing the site’s potential on-line gallery will also be monitored. In terms of stakeholder and partner involvement, the number of activities and events that they participate in will be monitored and the quality of the partnership will be measured through evaluations. All of these activities will help the site improve its relationships with partners and stakeholders on an on-going basis and will also provide insight into the results of national surveys.

For the site’s cultural resources, in addition to the assessments and studies linked to the ten year management planning cycle, Parks Canada also undertakes more frequent monitoring. Asset management staff and cultural resource specialists conduct regular inventories and assessments of the site’s cultural resources and its other assets.

In sum, through a wide range of surveys, monitoring activities, reports and partner and stakeholder meetings and sessions, Parks Canada will be measuring and reporting on its progress in achieving the objectives of this management plan. Where ongoing evaluations determine that some actions are no longer relevant or that new actions are needed, the Annual Management Plan reporting program will ensure that partners and stakeholders are kept apprised and involved.

9.0 Strategic Environmental Assessment

Parks Canada is responsible for assessing and mitigating the impact of its actions on ecosystems and cultural resources. The Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals prepared by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, requires a strategic environmental assessment (SEA) of all plans and policies submitted to the federal Cabinet or to a Minister for approval, including management plans for national historic sites.

Accordingly, an SEA of the objectives, programs, and management actions outlined in this management plan was carried out. The objectives of the environmental assessment were:

  • to ensure that the strategic directions and specific proposals contained within the plan respect and support the commemorative integrity goals for Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site,
  • to assess the implications of various alternatives considered in the plan, to enhance positive effects and avoid or mitigate negative effects,
  • to ensure that the plan adequately addresses the multiple stressors and concerns relating to the residual and cumulative effects, and
  • to document the potential tradeoffs and implications, including both positive and adverse residual impacts of the overall plan.

Review of the proposed strategic direction and specific actions proposed in the draft management plan for Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS indicates that the management plan is fully consistent with federal policy and legislation governing national presenting the cultural resources at Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS and working with stakeholders to protect the cultural heritage of the site.

The SEA included evaluation of cumulative environmental effects from all proposed actions. It also considered the full range of potential impacts on the natural and cultural values of the national historic site, both from ongoing operations and from proposed actions.

The management plan proposes a few management actions that could result in some adverse environmental impact. However, it is expected that these impacts can be mitigated once they are examined more closely during project-specific environmental impact analysis pursuant to the Parks Canada Interim Management Directive on Implementation of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 2012 or under the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of the Policy, Plan and Program Proposals. The following may be subject to project-specific environmental impact analysis:

  • Construction/repairs of infrastructure on site,
  • Issuance of a license of occupation,
  • Special events taking place on site (which may fall under the 2007, Replacement Class Screening Report: Special Events in the National Historic Sites of Canada in Eastern Newfoundland),
  • Installation of new signage,
  • Trail modifications,
  • Construction associated with underground programming,
  • Construction of new man made features,
  • Upgrades and enhancements to the arrival area,
  • Maintenance of the 1836 lighthouse, and
  • Conservation/rehabilitation options for the Second World War Battery complex.

Collectively, the strategic directions and management actions outlined in the management plan will contribute to an overall improvement in the commemorative integrity of Cape Spear Lighthouse National Historic Site.

10.0 Summary of Planned Actions and Corporate Performance Expectations

Heritage Resources Conservation
(Program Activity 2)

Actions

  • Continue to monitor and maintain the 1836 lighthouse in accordance with its Conservation and Maintenance Plan.
  • Identify, inventory and develop a monitoring program for cultural landscape features and landscape vestiges associated with the site’s defence and lightkeeping history.
  • Continue to monitor, maintain and manage the two in-situ 10" coastal defence guns.

Corporate Performance Expectation to be Met

  • Improve the overall average commemorative integrity rating

Actions

  • Identify the elements and features that contribute to the Second World War Battery Complex’s heritage value.
  • Explore and evaluate conservation and adaptive re-use options for the Second World War Battery complex that conserves its heritage values.

Corporate Performance Expectation to be Met

  • 70% of the condition of cultural resources and management practices elements of commemorative integrity rated as poor are improved within 5 years.
Public Appreciation and Understanding
(Program Activity 3)

Actions

Public Outreach Education and External Communications

  • Manage and maintain the site’s website and social media venues refreshing their content and format to ensure they are up-to-date and are relevant.
  • Encourage activities and facilitate events and programs that attract national interest and media attention.
  • Pursue programs and activities such as artist in residence, writer’s workshops, recorded performances etc. that will result in products that can be available to national audiences that increase awareness of the site.
  • Explore new media opportunities, such as those associated with the National Geographic MapGuide and webpage project that expand the reach and messages related to the site to non-visitor throughout the country and the world.
  • Explore use of Twitter, Facebook and other new media to post stories and photographs of unique natural features such as icebergs and whales, and international events, musical performances and national launches to potential audiences around the world.

Stakeholder and Partner Engagement

  • Continue to maintain communications and interest established during management plan consultations and engage representatives of the arts and cultural communities to: identify and pursue new site- inspired initiatives; provide input into development plans and programs; and identify administrative requirements to support and facilitate their involvement.
  • Consult with tourism stakeholders, partners and potential partners to define the role of the most easterly point area.
  • Seek partners for special events and development of the facilities/services to support them.
  • Explore the feasibility of and interest in an Ambassador program or other type of volunteer program that allows new visitors to personally connect with area residents and interest groups.

Corporate Performance Expectation to be Met

  • 60% of Canadians appreciate the significance of heritage places administered by Parks Canada by March 2014.
  • 80% of Canadians support the protection and presentation of places administered by Parks Canada by March 2014
Visitor Experience
(Program Activity 4)

Actions

  • Use outcomes of the EQ workshop to develop marketing and promotional materials.
  • Work with external and on-site partners to develop packaging opportunities and actively promote the site’s venues for community events.
  • Find creative ways to enhance Parks Canada’s visibility in partners programs (coupons, souvenirs, packages).
  • Continue to undertake Parks Canada Visitor Information Program and Cape Spear Lighthouse NHSC Attendance Studies.

Public Safety

  • Consider public safety and mitigate safety risks when planning new activities, events, services and infrastructure.
  • Update the site’s public safety plan as new activities, events, services and infrastructure are introduced to the site.
  • Explore new ways, through new media and creative interpretive panels, to deliver public safety messages at the site.

Interpretation

  • Work in collaboration with artistic and cultural groups to develop and facilitate outstanding visitor experiences associated with the 1836 lighthouse for example by introducing costumed interpretation to the site.
  • Explore ways to facilitate learning about the 1836 lighthouse at the locations that visitors frequent (i.e. arrival area and near the most easterly point).
  • Communicate the heritage values of the Second World War Battery Complex and cultural landscape vestiges associated with lightkeeping and defence through interpretive programs, media or other visitor experiences.
  • Develop programs, activities and/or interpretive media that focus on the site’s coastal environment and natural forces.

Interpretive Media

  • Provide an introduction to the site’s national historic significance through non-personal media at the arrival area.
  • Explore ways to establish, maintain and make visitors aware of an electronic venue; e.g. Facebook, Twitter or other social media, where visitors can submit and have access to creative works and information generated by other visitors.
  • Upgrade interpretive media as elements are replaced to better suit the interests of key EQ traveller types.
  • When developing any interpretive media for the site the inspiration for the design will draw upon the site themes, site history and landscape.

Interpretation Programs

  • Collaborate with professional artists and culturalists in the development of activities and programs that serve to facilitate learning about the site’s lightkeeping and defence history in creative and inspirational ways.
  • Incorporate access to the lighthouse lantern into an interpretive program or speciality activity/event.
  • Work in collaboration with partners and stakeholders to develop and offer a public art show, photo/video contest or some other such activity or forum to facilitate visitors sharing creative works with other visitors.

Visitor Service Offer

  • Undertake a feasibility study to determine the types and scale of events that can be best hosted at the site. Events could include national kick-offs, concerts, festivals, theatrical performances and more. Identify any new facilities and/or services (including food service) that will be required to host special events.
  • Define the role of the most easterly point area that will meet existing and future demands and expectations to accommodate events and activities which facilitate a range of experiences for various targeted traveller types, by identifying new infrastructure, services, interpretive media and interactive experiences.

Facilities

  • Assess the condition and capacity of the washroom facility, trails, look-outs and picnic areas to meet visitor needs and Identify areas/elements requiring upgrading as well as new elements.
  • Develop a site plan that incorporates elements to meet existing and future visitor experience needs, that respects the heritage values of the site and that is guided by the area management approach.
  • Develop specific designs for: an arrival area, the most easterly point area, interpretive nodes and directional nodes that incorporate elements that provide shelter from the elements, facilities and services required for special events/gatherings etc.
  • Prepare a development strategy to focus Parks Canada’s capital plan on essential services and to identify opportunities for the involvement of partners and stakeholders in the development of infrastructure elements that will serve to broaden the site’s capability for new activities.

Services

  • Use outcomes of the EQ workshop to develop a menu of opportunities for a range of traveller types.
  • Develop opportunities and electronic infrastructure which will enable visitors to plan their visit prior to arrival and upon arrival at the site, explore and learn about the site through the development of new media applications.
  • Provide opportunities for purchase of food and beverages at the site.
  • Incorporate menu of opportunities based on EQ into planned orientation node.

Events and Activities

  • In collaboration with partners and stakeholders identify opportunities for their involvement in new activities and programs.
  • Proactively undertake one to two events or activities each year involving artistic and/or cultural communities or other non-traditional partners.
  • Develop activities and offers for hikers who use or pass through Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS.

Corporate Performance Expectation to be Met

  • On average 85% of visitors at surveyed locations consider the place meaningful.
  • On average, 90% of visitors at surveyed locations are satisfied, and on average, 50% at surveyed locations are very satisfied with their visit.
Environmental Stewardship
  • Undertake project-specific environmental impact analysis as required, pursuant to the Parks Canada Interim Management Directive on Implementation of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act 2012.
  • Undertake strategic environmental assessment as required under the Cabinet Directive on the Environmental Assessment of Policy, Plan and Program Proposals.
 

Acknowledgements

The Cape Spear Lighthouse NHS Management Planning Team:

  • Bill Brake, Superintendent
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Glenn Keough, Manager National Historic Sites and Visitor Experience
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Lois Luke, Manager External Relations
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Stephen Burbridge, Asset Manager
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Jim Candow, Project Historian
    Atlantic Service Centre
  • Paula Morgan, Visitor Experience Team Leader
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Ray Kenny, Promotions Officer
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Trevor Kearsey, Internet and New Media Officer
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Rose Veitch, Collections Specialist
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Donald Parsons, Interpretation Specialist
    Newfoundland East Field Unit
  • Patricia Buchanan, Park Planner
    Newfoundland East Field Unit

Selected References

  • Canadian Tourism Commission, Explorer Quotient Demonstration, www.canada.travel/eq
  • Corporate Research Associates Inc., Signal Hill & Cape Spear National Historic Site Heritage Presentation Offer, 2007.
  • Government of Newfoundland and Labrador, Uncommon Potential: A Vision for Newfoundland and Labrador Tourism, February 2009.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Parks Canada Guiding Principles and Operational Policies, 1994.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Newfoundland East Field Unit, Cape Spear National Historic Site of Canada Annual Management Plan Implementation Report, 2007.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Guide to Management Planning, 2008.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Cape Spear National Historic Site of Canada, Visitor Information Program Final Report 2007-2008, 2008.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Cape Spear National Historic Site Commemorative Integrity (Baseline) Evaluation, 2001.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Cape Spear National Historic Site Commemorative Integrity Re-Evaluation, 2008.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Newfoundland East Field Unit, Cape Spear NHSC Visitor Experience Assessment September 17-18 2008, 2008.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Newfoundland East Field Unit, Cape Spear NHSC State of the Site Report, April 2009.
  • Parks Canada Agency, Atlantic Service Centre, Cape Spear NHSC Report on 2009 Attendance Study, 2009.
  • Walljasper, Jay – “99 Coastal Destinations Rated” from the November-December 2010 issue of National Geographic Traveler, 2010.

Glossary

Classified Federal Heritage Building:
A federal building to which the Minister responsible has assigned the highest heritage designation based on an evaluation by the Federal Heritage Building Review office (FHBRO).
Commemorative Integrity:
A historic place may be said to possess commemorative integrity when the resources that symbolize or represent its importance are not impaired or under threat, when the reasons for its significance are effectively communicated to the public, and when the heritage value of the place is respected.
Commemorative Intent:
A Refers to the reasons for a site’s designation as a national historic site, as determined by the ministerially approved recommendations of the Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada.
Connection to Place:
A concept that reflects the relevance and importance of protected heritage places to Canadians. It expresses the emotional, intellectual, and spiritual attachment Canadians and visitors feel toward natural and cultural heritage places. Parks Canada works to foster this sense of attachment through meaningful opportunities for enjoyment and learning provided on-site and through public outreach education. Respecting, understanding, and facilitating the relationship between heritage places and Canadians, including Aboriginal peoples, visitors, partners and stakeholders help promote a shared sense of responsibility for heritage places and engage minds and hearts to support their protection and presentation now and for future generations.
Cultural Landscape:
Any geographical area that has been modified, influenced or given special meaning by people.
Cultural Resource:
A human work or a place, which gives evidence of human activity or has spiritual or cultural meaning, and which has been determined to have historic value.
Cultural Resource Management (CRM):
Generally accepted practices for the conservation and presentation of cultural resources, founded on principles and carried out in a practice that integrates professional, technical and administrative activities so that the historic value of cultural resources is taken into account in actions that might affect them. In Parks Canada, Cultural Resource Management encompasses the presentation and use, as well as the conservation of cultural resources.
Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada (HSMBC):
An independent advisory group with representatives from all provinces and territories. It reviews submissions and provides impartial and expert advice to the Minister on the national historic importance of each proposal.
Historic Value:
Historic value is a value or values assigned to a resource, whereby it is recognized as a cultural resource. These values can be physical and/or associative.
In-situ:
Refers to cultural resources that are located in their original place.
Level I Cultural Resource:
A cultural resource that is of national historic significance. It directly relates to the reasons for a site’s national significance.
Level II Cultural Resource:
A cultural resource that is not of national historic significance but may possess other historic values and thus be considered a cultural resource.
National Historic Site:
Any place declared to be of national historic interest or significance by the Minister responsible for Parks Canada.
Public Outreach Education:
Public outreach education is reaching Canadians at home, at leisure, at school and in their communities through effective and relevant learning opportunities designed to increase understanding and appreciation of the natural and historical heritage of Parks Canada places, and to encourage individuals and communities to support and become engaged in their protection and presentation.
Visitor Experience:
Visitor experience is the sum total of a visitor's personal interaction with heritage places and/or people that awakens their senses, affects their emotions, stimulates their mind and leaves them with a sense of attachment to these places.