St. Helen's Complex: Red Cross Lodge

Recognized Federal Heritage Building

Kingston, Ontario
Front view of the building, 1988 (© Parks Canada Agency/Agence Parcs Canada, 1988.)
Front view
(© Parks Canada Agency/Agence Parcs Canada, 1988.)
Address : 440 King Street West, St. Helens Complex - RHQ, Kingston, Ontario

Recognition Statute: Treasury Board Policy on Management of Real Property
Designation Date: 1988-06-30
  • 1838 to 1838 (Construction)

Event, Person, Organization:
  • Thomas Kirkpatrick  (Person)
  • James Morton  (Person)
Other Name(s):
  • Red Cross Lodge Building 3  (Other Name)
  • Red Cross Lodge  (Other Name)
Custodian: Correctional Service of Canada
FHBRO Report Reference: 87-113
DFRP Number: 09478 00

Description of Historic Place

The St. Helen’s Complex: Red Cross Lodge is part of the St. Helen’s Complex in Kingston. Situated in landscaped grounds, the stuccoed, brick building with a hipped roof is set into the grade of a hill fronting Lake Ontario. Its simple, classically-inspired appearance is distinguished by large round-arched windows, pilasters and tall chimneys. Two wings project from the east and west sides of the building. The designation is confined to the footprint of the building.

Heritage Value

The St. Helen’s Complex: Red Cross Lodge is a Recognized Federal Heritage Building because of its historical associations, and its architectural and environmental values:

Historical value:
The St. Helen’s Complex: Red Cross Lodge, as part of the St. Helen’s complex, is associated with Thomas Kirkpatrick and James Morton both prominent figures in the early history of Kingston and Canada. Thomas Kirkpatrick, who built the lodge, belonged to a prominent local family. In recent times, the lodge has been associated with two other themes closely allied with Kingston: the military presence and the penitentiary. In 1853, the estate was acquired by James Morton the owner of the adjoining brewery complex and a local industrialist, acquired the estate. Subsequently sold to the Department of Militia and Defence, the complex became a hospital during the First World War. The properties were transferred to Correctional Services Canada in 1968 and now accommodate the regional offices.

Architectural value:
The St. Helen’s Complex: Red Cross Lodge is valued for its good aesthetics that exhibit classical influences. The sole surviving outbuilding of the original Kirkpatrick estate, its pilastered walls, stuccoed surfaces, semi-circular arched windows, and hipped roof reflect the same classical simplicity of the main building of the St. Helen’s complex. Good functional design and good craftsmanship are evidenced in the construction.

Environmental value:
The St. Helen’s Complex: Red Cross Lodge is compatible with the St. Helen’s complex and is a familiar landmark to workers and visitors.

Sources: Martha Phemister, St. Helen’s 440 and 462 King Street West, Kingston Ontario, Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office Report 87-113; St. Helen’s Complex, 440/462 King Street West, Kingston, Ontario, Heritage Character Statement 88-113.

Character-Defining Elements

The character-defining elements of the St. Helen’s Complex: Red Cross Lodge should be respected.

Its simple design with classical and picturesque influences, good craftsmanship and materials, for example: the simple massing of the hipped roof structure with one storey massing of the front elevation and two storey massing for the rear elevation; the exterior walls of stuccoed brick; the arrangement of the semi-circular windows and pilasters; the slender chimneys.

The manner in which the St. Helen’s Complex: Red Cross Lodge is compatible with the St. Helen’s complex and is a familiar landmark to workers and visitors, as evidenced by: the structure’s simple design with classical influences, proportions and massing, which harmonize with the landscaped Regency gardenesque grounds and with the other inter-related buildings in the complex; its commanding position on a hill overlooking Lake Ontario, which makes it well known to workers and visitors.

Heritage Character Statement

Disclaimer - The heritage character statement was developed by FHBRO to explain the reasons for the designation of a federal heritage building and what it is about the building that makes it significant (the heritage character). It is a key reference document for anyone involved in planning interventions to federal heritage buildings and is used by FHBRO in their review of interventions.

The St. Helen's complex consists of four buildings (St. Helen's, Stone Gables, Red Cross Lodge, and Grant House) and the associated grounds. Established in the 1830's as a residential "picturesque villa" and adjoining brewery establishment, the estate served as a military hospital during WWI. It was acquired by the Department of Militia and Defense through expropriation in 1918. The buildings were extended during and after WWII for use by the Department of National Defense. The properties were transferred to Correctional Services Canada in 1968 and now accommodate the regional headquarters offices. Correctional Services Canada is the custodian of the property. See FHBRO Building Reports 83-83 and 87-113.

Reason for Designation

The St. Helen's complex was designated Classified because of its important historical associations, the quality of its architectural design and workmanship both interior and exterior, and the quality of its environment. Historically the property was comprised of two principal components, residential and industrial. These are now functionally integrated under the common use as CSC offices but evidence of their previous identity is apparent.

The property is an excellent example of the early 19th century movement of residential areas beyond town limits to country retreats and an expression of the refined Regency outlook on life. These period traits were all expressed in the "picturesque" design of St. Helen's, the Red Cross Lodge, and the grounds.

The property is associated with Themes Kirkpatrick and James Morton, both prominent figures in the early history of Kingston and Upper Canada.

The Grant House (Building #10) represents the property's industrial past and still clearly relates architecturally and functionally to the masonry brewery buildings on the adjacent city-owned property as well as to the St. Helen's buildings.

The FHBRO also noted the landscape and setting as being good examples from the gardenesque period which, despite some alteration and evolution, retain ample evidence of the same design ethic that was expressed in the architecture of the two surviving original villa buildings.

Character Defining Elements

The Complex:

The heritage character of the St. Helen's complex resides principally in the St. Helen's residence, the grounds, and the designed inter-relationship between them. The Red Cross Lodge and Grant House (Buildings #3 and #10) and the stone and iron fence along the north edge of the property are important contributors to this character through their aesthetic design and their constant functional inter-relationship over time. Stone Gables, a later addition to the complex, is designed and sited so that it does not detract from the character of the property. Several other later additions to the property, both structures and parking areas, are poorly sited and of incompatible design. Their removal or relocation should be considered.

The original grounds design was a fine example of the gardenesque, of which there are few surviving examples in Canada. A survey of surviving landscape features is encouraged to determine which vistas and relationships were important to the design and to identify surviving original features and design patterns. Such a survey would guide future site development such as the siting of parking, new structures, and other infrastructure and ensure that new work is in keeping with the Regency gardenesque character of the grounds and a suitable complement to the architecture.

St. Helen's:

This building was designated Classified. The heritage character of the residence resides in its status as one of the finest examples of Picturesque Regency architecture in Canada. Despite some alterations, the exterior of the building retains all of the visual quality of the style. The designed relationship between the building and its grounds remains clear.

The early additions and alterations to the building were considered by the FHBRO to be of high quality and to have been undertaken in the spirit of the original design. They should be retained. The later office wing off the south elevation is incompatible in form, massing, materials, and quality of construction. Considering the architectural importance of St. Helen's, removal of this addition should be considered when major renovation work is required.

The layout of the building is a textbook example of residential planning in the Regency period. Symmetry, the duality of public and private spaces, and the relationship between family and service areas is deliberate and clear. Siting is also classic. The building is positioned on a rise, and situated to give the rear, private, area the best
vistas and the southerly exposure.

Despite minor alterations and subdivision of the interior spaces and details of the building, the interior remains a clear statement of the social and residential planning ideals of the period.

Because of this building's extraordinary value and relative intactness, extreme care should be taken in its future management.

The Red Cross Lodge (Building #3):

This building was designated Recognized. It's heritage value resides in its close functional, historical, and architectural design relationship with the St. Helen's
residence. It is the sole surviving outbuilding of the original Kirkpatrick estate. It's pilastered walls, stuccoed surfaces, semi-circular arched windows, and hipped roof reflect the same classical simplicity of the main building.

Like St. Helen's, this building has been altered and additions constructed. The earliest of these, particularly that of Newlands in 1918, was executed with a high degree of sensitivity. The two later wings, at the east and west, are of incompatible materials, fenestration, and construction quality. Their removal would be considered an enhancement of the property. The interior of the building has been heavily altered. The temptation to "restore" the interior without adequate evidence of its previous state should be resisted. Instead, any proposal for rehabilitation should be of a compatible, contemporary design. The separate historical relationship between the elegant grounds of St. Helen's and the more functional grounds of this building could be clarified.

The Grant House (Building #10):

This building was designated Recognized. Its heritage value resides in its association with early industrial development in Upper Canada, particularly the Morton Brewery. It is also a very good example of neo-classical vernacular architecture. Although a part of the St. Helen's complex both functionally and historically, the FHBRO noted this building's important visual and architectural relationship with the complex of buildings on the adjoining city-owned land, the original Morton Brewery. Future development should consider this important relationship.

Despite additions and renovations to its interior, this building is practically intact, the plan and many original details being concealed by the later work. Future work on the building should endeavor to continue to protect these features.

An enclosed porch of incompatible design obscures the fanlight and side-lights of the front entranceway. Its removal would be an improvement. The two-storey frame addition dating from the WWII period is less obtrusive than the additions to the other buildings on the property. However, removal of it and the extensive parking area before the building would enhance the property. Reinstatement of the garden space to the north would give this building context and setting.

Stone Gables:

The building was designated Recognized. It's heritage value resides in its Tudor Revival architectural design, currently intact in all its details, and its environment.

The design of the interior, the selection of materials, and the level of craftsmanship displayed in the paneling, millwork, and glazing, is of a high standard and is fully consistent with the building style. These aspects of the ground floor and the main stair should be protected. The other floors are to a lesser standard. Future development in these areas should respect the residential character of the building.

The building was carefully integrated into the 19th century landscape of Morton Wood. Future landscape development that maintains the existing visual continuity of the northern grounds between St. Helen's and Stone Gables would be appropriate. They should remain undivided. What remains of the south grounds is generally intact, but the relationship with the lake has been lost. Modest, scaled development, if screened from St. Helen's, could occur in this area.