Aversive conditioning: A structured program
applying deterrents consistently and sustainably over an identified period
of time to achieve modification of an animal's behaviour by pairing the undesired
behaviour with pain or an unpleasant stimulus.
Bear jams: A traffic jam caused by people
stopping their vehicles to view a bear.
Blue-listed species: (British Columbia)
Species and subspecies that are considered sensitive or vulnerable and that
could become eligible for the Red List (threatened or endangered) in the foreseeable
future (e.g., Marbled Murrelet, Fisher, Grizzly Bear). The Blue List also
includes species that are generally suspected to be vulnerable, but for which
information is too limited to allow designation in another category.
Bluff charge: An interaction between a bear
and a human where a bear charges toward the human, but stops short of the
human or veers away before making physical contact. The bear’s behaviour
is intended to intimidate, but not necessarily harm.
Boar: A male bear.
Backcountry: Those parts of the park not accessible by motor
Home range: The area in which an individual animal normally
Frontcountry: Those parts of the park accessible by motor
Conditioned: Describes bear behaviour defined by one or
more of the following: has sought and possibly obtained non-natural foods,
destroyed property, displays aggressive (non-defensive) behaviour towards
human, or becomes otherwise overly familiar with humans.
Hazing: an immediate response to a situation by the use
of deterrents to move an animal out of an area or discourage an undesirable
activity. Further application not implied.
Habitat: The place where an animal or plant naturally lives
and finds its life requisites. For wildlife this includes food, cover to avoid
detection, shelter from weather, and space in a suitable arrangement.
Habituated: Describes bear behaviour where a bear has become
accustomed to frequenting developed areas, frontcountry or backcountry campgrounds,
trails or roadsides, but has retained its natural foraging behaviour. Habituated
bears have not become overly familiar with humans but are comfortable in the
presence of humans.
Hard release: A bear behaviour modification technique. A
bear that is persisting in a campground or townsite is captured. It is released
from a culvert trap in the area where it would become a problem in a hail
of shouting, cracker shells, bangers and rubber bullets. The intent is to
have the bear associate the area with a negative experience that will guide
it to avoid the area in the future.
Human-bear encounter: An encounter between a bear and a
human. The encounter may range from a non-threat encounter where the bear
does not threaten the human (i.e., an observation, the bear demonstrates curious
behaviour, the bear stands up and sniffs the air, the bear sees a person and
subsequently climbs a tree, or the bear is aware or unaware of the person
and continues its pre-encounter routine or leaves the area) to a threat encounter
where the bear growls, huffs, slaps the ground, pops its jaws, or shows other
signs of aggressive intent.
May-be-at-Risk species (Alberta): A definition
from the Status of Alberta’s Wildlife. Also referred to as a blue-listed
species. Means current knowledge suggests that these species may be at risk.
These species have undergone non-cyclical declines in population or habitat,
or reductions in provincial distribution.
Radio telemetry: Radio telemetry involves radio signals
being sent from a transmitter attached to a collar on an animal that are intercepted
by a receiver with an antenna. Different radio frequencies are used for different
individuals being tracked. This allows researchers to collect data on a collared
Sow: A female bear.