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Saint-Louis Forts and Châteaux
National Historic Site of Canada

Archeological Discoveries

Pierre Cloutier and Jacques Guimont – Archaeologists

Remains of the two Saint-Louis châteaux

The first Château Saint-Louis

Digs have uncovered part of the foundation of the eastern wall of the first Château Saint-Louis, built by the first official governor of the colony, Charles Huault de Montmagny, in 1648. The southeastern corner of the first building consisted of large squared stone from Cap Diamant itself.

The second Château Saint-Louis

The excavations revealed several major remains from the second Château Saint-Louis, built in 1694 by Frontenac and completed in 1719-1723 by Vaudreuil senior:

Part of the remains of the Chateau Saint-Louis Part of the remains of the Château Saint-Louis, uncovered in 2006: vegetable cold room, kitchen, and southern latrine wing.
© Parks Canada /P.Cloutier

The basements, whose walls and bases of the archways remain.

Former vegetable cold room and the corridor accessing it Former vegetable cold room and the corridor accessing it
© Parks Canada / J. Jacob
  • The two latrine wings, one at each end of the building
  • The culinary complex, which included a pantry, kitchen and servants' hall.
The pantry and its fireplace The pantry and its fireplace, excavated in late summer 2006
© Parks Canada / J. Jacob
  • Polished limestone flagstones
Bird's-eye view of the flagstones in the pantry Bird's-eye view of the flagstones in the pantry. In the dark area are original polished limestone flagstones.
© Parks Canada / J. Jacob
  • Two hearths.
  • A wooden floor in the kitchen and wash house (installed in 1723).

After the Conquest, all these rooms underwent significant changes. Many remains were found that bear witness to the changes:

Side view of the wood floor in the receiving room Side view of the wood floor in the wash house created in 1723.
© Parks Canada / M. Bernier.


Remains of the bread oven Remains of the bread oven, which in 1808-1811 replaced the 1723 bread oven
© Parks Canada / M. Goyette
  • A set of six masonry pillars that supported the château's terrace and also served as buttresses (1775-1777)
  • A bread oven (reconstructed in 1808-1811)
  • Sandstone flagstones from several rooms in the basement (renovated in 1816)
  • A new drain in the pantry (1816)