Chambly Canal National Historic Site of Canada
The soil on the west bank of the Chambly Canal is mostly deposits
of silty grey clay, covered in places by a thin layer of topsoil or fill
near the roads. This layer of clay, up to 6 m deep, covers a till deposit
and originates from the fluvial deposits, but may also have come from excavation
work during the building of the canal. It may thus be man-made.
Halfway along the Chambly Canal, the soil is more fine loam, coarse
loam, fine clay and fine alluvium. This part of the canal (Île Fryer)
is almost level with the Richelieu River. Depending on the location, the
soil is calcareous or non-calcareous. Generally, the rock is 45 to 120 cm
deep, drainage is poor and run-off slow to very slow. The soil on Île
Fryer has mostly been disturbed by human activity. Non-reworked soil is of
two types, depending on the drainage and surface deposits. On the silt deposits,
which are saturated with water for part of the year, gleysolic soil is found.