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Fort George National Historic Site of Canada


Pre-war of 1812 time line

| 1774-81 | 1781 - 84 | 1793 | 1804 |

1774 - 81 The American Revolution (War of Independence)

Rebels (Patriots') rise up against the British colonial policy wherein the 13 colonies are forced to pay for costs the British incurred ridding North America of France's influence {The Seven Year / French and Indian War} and resulting taxation and representation issues. The Rebels are ultimately successful when, with tremendous support (troops, ships, gunpowder and supplies) from France (their enemy 20 years before), as well as pressure from Holland, Spain and Portugal, the Rebels patriots' claim victory in the south (Cornwallis surrenders to Count de Rochambeau and Washington - Yorktown, Virginia 1781). With the Treaty of Paris, territories of the northern colonies were surrendered to the Americans including land successfully defended by Loyalists and First Nations people. A large tract of land (from the western perimeter of the thirteen colonies to the eastern banks of the Mississippi was given up as well.) See map 1783 British and U.S. Continental Territories.

Loyalists Tories' are left with the options of emmigrating to Canada, the West Indies or returning to their countries of origin. The West Indies were notorious for fatal diseases and sicknesses which made them unappealing for settlers. For most of the Loyalists, returning to their homeland was not an option. Many were North American born and bred whose parents came to North America to escape ethnic and religious persecution. [i.e. Ethnic - Scottish and Irish vs English persecution; Religious- Anglican / Protestant / Presbyterian vs Roman Catholics {widespread}]. The opportunity to gain land and make something of yourself was a greater possibility in North America, where there was land and natural resources enough for anyone willing to work hard. Land and opportunity were much scarcer in European and British societies of the period. As a result, Canada was the best choice for settlement.

1781 - 84 Loyalists refugees begin to settle in Upper Canada.

Loyalist regiments that fought for the King disband and join refugee settlements. Focal points of Loyalist settlements - the Atlantic provinces and eastern and south-western Ontario.

1784 - Late Loyalists begin to trickle in

1792 Influx of late Loyalists

Americans (not actual Loyalists) coming north to take advantage of land grants and allowances from Simcoe and the British Government.

1790 American settlers begin pressure into Native lands in Ohio Valley

Western tribes defeat 2 American armies that are forcing settlement westwards (October 1790 Colonel Josiah Harmar is defeated by the Western Tribes at Maumee river south of Lake Erie. November 1791 Governor Arthur St. Clair takes the Federal army up the Wabash and walks into a massacre.)

1791 The Constitutional Act - divides Upper and Lower Canada

1792 Simcoe made first Lieutenant - Governor - establishes first capital at Newark (NOTL)

1793 Emancipation Act.

Freedom granted to slaves arriving in Canada, those in bondage remained slaves while their children are granted freedom at age 25. (Beginning of Underground Railroad)

1793 England at war with France

1794 Battle of Fallen Timbers - August 20th Northwestern Tribes defeated by American army under the command of Major General Anthony Wayne.

Jay's Treaty - (Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation) British agree to relinquish Western Posts (Detroit Mackinac and Upper State New York).

1795 Treaty of Greenville - Northwestern Tribes surrender a large parcel of Ohio and a portion of Indiana to the Americans.

1796 - British retire from the Western Posts

Fort George built to defend against Ft Niagara (New American possession) Capital of Upper Canada moved to York (Toronto)

1804 - The Battle of Trafalgar

(British Navy is clearly dominant)

1807 - British ship Leopard' fires on American Chesapeake'

Public outrage in the this event fuelled Warhawk arguments for War against Britain.

1811 - Brock made Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada

1811 - Battle at Tippecanoe - Americans attack new Western Tribe confederacy, claim victory and report British firearms used by Natives in the conflict.

1812, June 19th - President Madison declares War on Great Britain

The time line, provides some clues as to the outbreak of war in 1812. Some of the key factors are as follows: Causes of the War of 1812 .