Evolution of Bear Management in the Mountain National Parks
The Banff National Park Management Plan is approved. It contains a strategic
goal “To maintain viable populations of wary species such as grizzly
bear, wolf, wolverine, and cougar by reducing the impact of human use, and
working with surrounding jurisdictions.”, and an objective “to
reduce the number of grizzly bears killed as a result of human activity to
less than 1% of the population annually.” (estimated population: ~60
The inter-agency Rocky Mountain Grizzly Bear Planning Committee
is formed to address issues related to trans-boundary management
of grizzly bear populations.
The Panel of the Ecological Integrity of Canada’s National
Parks (the Panel) is asked to review Parks Canada’s management
for ecological integrity in the national parks and provide recommendations.
The Foothills Model Forest Grizzly Bear Research Program is created to provide knowledge
and planning tools to land and resource managers to ensure the long-term conservation of
grizzly bears in Alberta.
The Panel finds that the ecological integrity of virtually
all of Canada’s 39 national parks is threatened and provides
a series of recommendations to the Minister of Canadian Heritage.
The new Canada National Parks Act (Bill C-27) moves ecological
integrity to the top of the parks’ management agenda and provides
for greater protection for wildlife and flora.
The Yoho, Jasper, Kootenay and Waterton Lakes National Park Management
Plans are approved by the Minister of Canadian Heritage. The plans
reflect the key themes and principles of the Banff National Park
To help reduce the loss of wary bear behaviour resulting from
exposure to high numbers of people, an electric fence is built around
the Lake Louise ski hill parking lot and base of a summer gondola
From 1996-2001, Alberta’s human population rose 10.3%. The
Calgary-Edmonton corridor is one of four major urban centres in
Canada. It borders the eastern edge of the grizzly bear’s
Close to three million people now visit Banff National Park annually.
COSEWIC designates Canada’s northwest population of grizzly
bears as “Special Concern” (may become threatened or
endangered because of a combination of biological characteristics
and identified threats), while the prairie population is designated
“Extirpated” (locally extinct).
An electric fence is built around the tenting area of the
Lake Louise Campground.
A Grizzly Bear Conservation Strategy is approved as an amendment
to the 1997 Banff National Park Management Plan upon its five-year
Species at Risk Act is proclaimed into law.
The Parks Canada Agency is moved from the federal Department of Canadian
Heritage back to Environment Canada.
Attendu, Diane.1983. Direction for bear management: a summary.
Parks Canada. Western Region. Resource Management Planning, Calgary,
AB. 245 pp.
Banci, V. 1991. The status of the grizzly bear in Canada in 1990.
Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC).
Ottawa, ON. 171 pp.
Banff National Park. 1997. Banff National Park Management Plan.
Canadian Heritage. Parks Canada. 85 pp.
Banff-Bow Valley Study. 1996. Banff Bow Valley: At the Crossroads.
Summary report of the Banff Bow Valley Task Force. Prepared for
the Honourable Sheila Copps Minister of Canadian Heritage, Ottawa,
ON. 76 pp.
Benn, B. 1998. Grizzly bear mortality in the Central Rockies Ecosystem,
Canada. M.E.D. thesis. University of Calgary, Calgary, AB. 151 pp.
British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. 1995.
Conservation of Grizzly Bears in British Columbia, Background Report.
Burns, Robert J. 1994. Guardians of the Wild: a history of the
warden service in Canada’s national parks. University of Calgary
Press, Calgary, AB.
Cochrane, G.A. 1972. Bear control program in Yoho National Park.
at risk in Canada.
Gibeau, M.L., S. Herrero, J.L. Kansas, and B. Benn. 1996. Grizzly
bear population and habitat status in Banff National Park: a report
to the Banff Bow Valley Task Force, Banff, AB. 62 pp.
Kansas, J. 2002. Status of the Grizzly Bear (Ursos arctos)
in Alberta. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife
Division, and Alberta Conservation Association, Wildlife Status
Report No. 37, Edmonton, AB. 43 pp.
Lothian, W.F. 1987. A brief history of Canada’s national
parks. Environment Canada. Parks Canada. 156 pp.
Noble, L.B. 1972. Man and grizzly bear in Banff National Park,
Alberta. M.A. thesis, University of Calgary, AB. 119 pp.
Parks Canada Guiding Principles and Operational Policies. 1994.
Minister of Supply and Services Canada. 125 pp.
Raine, R.M. and R.N. Riddell. 1991. Grizzly bear research in Yoho
and Kootenay National Parks, British Columbia. Proc. Grizzly Bear
Management Workshop. Revelstoke, B.C. pp 31-39.
Retfalvi, Laszlo. 1972. Bear use of waste disposal sites and related
problems in the management of some national parks. Canadian Wildlife
Service. 62 pp.
Statistics Canada. 2001. Canada Census.
Taylor, J.S. 1984. Bear management plans in Canadian national parks:
fifteen essential elements. M.E.D thesis. University of Calgary,
AB. 347 pp.