River Transportation on the Yukon
Sternwheelers on the Lower River
In 1866 the S.S. Wilder, in support of the Russian-American Telegraph initiative, became the first sternwheeler to ascend the Yukon River. Three years later the Alaska Commercial Company (ACC) introduced the regular use of sternwheelers on the lower Yukon River. For the remainder of the 19C the ACC, and later its competitor the North American Trading & Transportation Company, used sternwheelers to supply their trading posts on the Yukon River. Operating from the port of St. Michael, Alaska, near the river's mouth, sternwheelers would carry freight and supplies, as well as fur traders and prospectors, during the short May to September navigation season.
Klondike Gold Rush
S.S. May West arriving in Dawson from St. Michael's, 1898.
© Vancouver Public Library Special Collections #32856
When word of the Klondike gold strike reached the outside world in the spring of 1897, it ignited a rush the likes of which have not been seen since. The stampede of people to the Klondike gold fields overwhelmed the few sternwheelers on the river at the time. During the summer of 1897, the boats of 30 new companies appeared to join those already in service, and by the end of the season 60 new sternwheelers were in operation on the Yukon River.
While many of these new boats operated on the lower river, from St. Michael, sternwheelers were also introduced on the headwater lakes and the upper river carrying people and supplies that had come over the Chilkoot and White Pass Trails from Dyea and Skagway on the coast of the Alaskan Panhandle.
Sternwheelers on the Upper River
Three sternwheelers and horsedrawn tramway at Canyon City.
© 1898 / Yukon Archives. E. A. Hegg, #2695
The sternwheelers operating on the headwater lakes sailed between Bennett at the northern terminus of the coastal trails and Canyon City on the upper Yukon River. At Canyon City, a horse drawn tramway, running on wooden rails, was used to carry goods around the treacherous Miles Canyon and White Horse Rapids. From the tiny new settlement of White Horse, located at the base of the rapids, it was a relatively easy 740 kilometre (460 mile) journey by sternwheeler down the upper Yukon River to the booming mining town of Dawson City.
White Pass & Yukon Route (WP&YR)
WP&YR locomotive rounding bend at Rocky Point.
© 1899 / Yukon Archives. H.C. Barley, #5509
On July 6, 1899, the arduous journey over the coastal passes was eliminated when the narrow-gauge WP&YR railway was completed between Skagway and Bennett. A year later the rail line was completed to Whitehorse bypassing Bennett and Canyon City; eliminating two freight transfer points. It was now possible for goods and passengers to be transported from Skagway to Dawson City with only a single transfer point from railway to riverboat in Whitehorse.
British Yukon Navigation Company
BYN Sternwheelers at Whitehorse.
© 1903 / Yukon Archives. H.C. Barley, #5537.
The rail line completed, WP&YR moved quickly to extend its dominance in transportation establishing a river division, the British Yukon Navigation Company (BYN). Within a short period of time BYN succeeded in buying out the competition establishing a virtual monopoly on the transportation of goods and people coming into and leaving the Yukon Territory. The dominant pattern of transportation that would serve the Territory for the next fifty years, had been established. Though the boom created by the gold rush was short lived, the development of an efficient transportation system established Dawson City as the supply centre for the upper Yukon River basin.
Mayo District Silver
Gold Dredge working in the Klondike District.
© Edna Stewart Collection #42(b)-103 / Parks Canada
While mining continued in the Klondike district, increasingly corporate mining interests were acquiring Klondike mining claims and mechanized gold dredges were replacing hand mining operations. Individual hand miners meanwhile fanned out to work other rivers in the upper Yukon basin in search of a new bonanza.
One such river was the Stewart. Flowing into the Yukon 112 km upstream of Dawson City, it had long been known as the “grubstake river”, where one could reliably make enough to finance further exploration. In 1914 a hard rock silver find on a tributary of the Stewart River started a staking rush. In 1918 a second, even richer, ore body was discovered on nearby Keno Hill attracting the attention of corporate mining interests. By 1923 the value of silver coming out of the Mayo District had bypassed the value of gold coming out of the Klondike and the settlement of Mayo, at the head of navigation on the Stewart River, replaced Dawson City as the supply centre for the new silver mining district.
The Silver Challenge
Sacks of silver-lead ore stockpiled in Mayo for shipment to Whitehorse. From Whitehorse the ore travelled by train to Skagway.
© John Dunn Collection / Parks Canada
For BYN, Mayo District silver was a boon. Unlike placer gold which was melted down into gold bricks for shipment in Dawson City, Mayo District silver was found as a component of galena, a silver lead mineral, that needed to be shipped out as ore in order to be further processed. Sternwheelers that had previously returned to Whitehorse empty now had a payload – sacks of silver lead ore – for the return trip. But the opportunity came did not come without challenges.
S.S. Keno pushing barge on the Stewart River.
© Gordon A. McIntyre Collection #42(b)-30, 1933 / Parks Canada
The Stewart River was shallower than the Yukon, limiting the use of Yukon River sternwheelers to the brief period of the spring flood. In 1922 BYN built the S.S. Keno for use on the Stewart River. Smaller than the Yukon River sternwheelers the Keno could transport supplies to Mayo and carry ore back down to Stewart Landing at the river's mouth for the duration of the navigation season. At Stewart Landing the ore would be transferred onto the Yukon River sternwheelers that would stop there on their return trip from Dawson to Whitehorse.
S.S. Casca pushing a barge on the Yukon River.
© R. Willis Collection #38-131 / Parks Canada
Even the larger sternwheelers working the main river did not exceed 51.81 meters (170') in length or 10.66 meters (35') in width. They could carry 180-225 tonnes (198-248 t.) of cargo on a shallow draft of 1.21 meters (four feet). In order to move sufficient quantities of ore they needed to push barges in order to increase their cargo capacity. This meant that the upstream run took half again as much time and fuel. The solution to moving ore upstream to Whitehorse more efficiently was to build the S.S. Klondike .
No sooner had the S.S. Klondike been built than the stock market crashed. The impact of the depression on the Mayo silver mining operations was somewhat buffered by increases in efficiency and economies of scale. Despite the depression, the mines kept operating, though at reduced output. The outbreak of the Second World War however soon saw Treadwell Yukon, the main player, shutting down its operations, drastically reducing the volume of ore shipments coming out of the district. Throughout the depression and the war BYN sternwheelers continued to run, but there were fewer boats on the water.
Rivers to Roads
Paddlewheel of unidentified sternwheeler.
© R. Willis Collection#38-138 / Parks Canada
Mayo District silver mining operations, reorganized under new ownership, resumed in earnest in 1946, giving the BYN sternwheelers a brief reprieve. However the opening of an all weather road between Whitehorse and Mayo in 1950 signalled that the demise of the sternwheeler was near at hand. Ore could now be carried by truck south to Whitehorse on a more or less year round basis overcoming what had always been the Yukon River's chief liability as a transportation route – an open navigation season that was restricted to only four or five months a year. BYN sternwheelers continued to operate between Whitehorse and Dawson City at reduced capacity until 1952 when the Mayo Road was extended to Dawson City.