Fort Lennox National Historic Site of Canada
Natural Wonders & Cultural Treasures
The American Invasion
American officer, between 1775 and 1776
© Parks Canada / Illustration by G.A.Embleton
In 1775, the War of Independence between revolutionaries of the 13 colonies and Britain breaks out. A few months later, they occupied île aux Noix. General Schuyler used it as a base for the attack on Montreal. One year later, in reaction to the resistance encountered at Quebec City and the British counter-attack, the Americans retreated to the island, which provided them with a strategic refuge for their troops. Following their withdrawal from île aux Noix, the island became the southernmost British defensive position on the Richelieu.
Ile aux Noix, late 18th century. In the background, the French defense works constructed in 1759 and the British blockhouses erected in 1776.
© National Archives of Canada / Capitaine Rudyard / C-40335
The British then considered the island to be a major frontier post, and decided to fortify it. The original intention was to adapt the remains of the French fortification to contain a small garrison. First, some blockhaus were built on the island in 1776. Then, in 1778, the British started the construction of a fortification inside some of the French ramparts, as planned by the engineer Twiss. This fortification, in which a small garrison could be stationed, was finished in 1779 and supplemented with three redoubts in 1782.
The border with the newly founded United States was to remain a source of conflict, with clashes erupting sporadically. Finally, the ongoing state of tension between England and its former colony was to build up into another full-blown war.