The war of 1812
1815 - The War Ends
Ratification of the Treaty of Ghent
The treaty of Ghent was concluded on the 24 of December 1814 and passed all levels of American government by February 17, 1815. The Treaty was officially proclaimed on the 18th, as follows:
- Article 1. Boundaries to be restored to their respective sides.
- Article 2. Cessation of Military and Naval hostilities
- Article 3. Return of Prisoners taken in war.
- Articles 4 - 8 revolve around the settlement of borders between the U.S. and Britain, principally referring back to the Peace Treaty signed in 1783 to end the hostilities of the American Revolution. Commissioners from both countries to negotiate a definitive map.
- Article 9. Both nations to end hostilities against Indian Nations.
- Article 10. Both nations to promote the abolition of slavery,
- Article 11. Declaration that the treaty is binding pending American ratification.
In the end the Treaty of Ghent did little to alter North America. The cessation of hostilities occurred in the formal sense although hostilities against the native population expanded as the frontiers of settlement pressed west. The British hope of creating a buffer state of Natives between the U.S. and Upper Canada disappeared.
Battle of New Orleans After three weeks of waiting (since Dec 10) and building up a large British army of 6-7,000 troops under Lieutenant General Sir Edward Pakenham. The British assaulted New Orleans and are thoroughly beaten by the American garrison (of 4-5,000 men) under Major General Andrew Jackson. The British remain until the 18th and leave after much loss of life (2,000 casualties).
February 8 Surrender of Fort Bowyer to the British army retreating from New Orleans.
February 8 News of Peace arrives in North America
March 1 General Prevost is officially notified of peace at Quebec.
June 18 Napoleon defeated at The Battle of Waterloo.
January 1816 Sir George Prevost dies.
1817 Rush-Bagot Treaty.
1817 Commodore Sir James Lucas Yeo dies.