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Fort George National Historic Site of Canada

Teacher's resource

About the Materials used to create this piece

This is not designed to be a definitive work on the War of 1812 but rather the synthesis of information in an easy to understand format. A number of sources were referred to from The Capital Years Niagara on the Lake 1792-1796", George Stanley's The War of 1812 - Land Operations, Ernest Cruikshank's The Battle of Fort George Edward Lossing's 1812 " , Wesley Turner's, War of 1812-the War that Both Sides Won, Bob Malcomson's Lords of the Lakes, and Carl Benn's The Iroquois in the War of 1812 ". Suffice to say that no two versions wholeheartedly agree with each other and as a result this package is a survey of some of what these authors have to say. As an example, each section has a time line, and a synopsis of major events compiled from several texts with the intent that this package is to create a good foundation (especially for those with little background on the subject). What is presented in this document is not all or everything that happened during the period covered, but rather as many easy tie-ins and basic information as is needed to understand the War of 1812.

For information about the teachers' package please contact Gavin Watt at Gavin.Watt@pc.gc.ca.

An explanation of the units in the Teachers package.

Unit 1 Loyalists: Lesson Plan - Dealings with Aboriginals

Aboriginal dealings with both indigenous (Mississaugas) and Loyalist refugee aboriginals (Six Nations encamped at Fort Niagara) were the first major political activities in the settlement of Niagara.. The first lesson plan deals with the establishment of Niagara by looking at 3 original documents. The first is an Indian Council held with Colonel John Butler which asks how the natives would feel if the British abandoned the western outposts (south side of the Great Lakes including Fort Niagara and Detroit). The second council (also with Butler) is a transcript of the discussion surrounding the purchase of the land of the Niagara peninsula from the Mississauga Indians. The third is the actual treaty that was signed.

The first unit is designed to meet the BNA overall expectations by creating awareness of the origins of English settlement in Canada by describing the territory the Loyalists came to, what was there before, why the Loyalists came to Canada, the ethnic composition of the Loyalists (including Black and Aboriginal Loyalists), the acquisition of land and the Loyalist settlement of the Niagara region. In the Loyalist unit on our web page original documents have been included to give you or your class a glimpse into the actual text of letters, petitions to the king, treaties, Indian council meetings and to give a sense of the personalities that surrounded the formation of English speaking Canada.

There are also charts of locations and numbers of Loyalists and where they settled. Once this basic information has been covered there is a time line of events that precipitated the War of 1812, as well as the 4 major reasons for the War of 1812. There are a number of biographies of significant loyalist figures (including John Graves Simcoe). The information included at the back (Time line, Original Documents, Biographies) can be used by the teacher as a reference, enlarged and posted on the walls of the class, or form the basis for board notes - it is all up to you. This material sets the stage for the war of 1812 units to follow.

Table of Contents for Teachers' Package - Paragraph headings

Loyalists(1774-1811)
Lesson Plan - Dealing with Aboriginals Objective/Intent Facilitation ideas Visual Aides Some possible ways of proceeding- Loyalist text and maps.
Dealings with Aboriginals terms, reading original documents for meaning.
Questions about Dealing with Aboriginals* + personal response

Questions for Unit 1 + Applying concepts -Bias*Loyalist Unit Quiz - multiple choice *

*All questions, quizzes and charts have keys.


Materials on the Web page and on the C.D.Rom
Vocabulary Before the Loyalists
Map - Established Water Routes to the Interior(Extreme Political Boundaries Before 1812.)
Map - 1783 British and U.S. Continental Territories
Map Major Transportation Routes for Goods sent to Upper Canada .

Arrival of the Loyalists
Map - Loyalist Settlement Areas and the Western Outposts
Ethnic Makeup of the Loyalist Land Acquisition Map - A Map of the province of Upper Canada -made for Simcoe 1803 .

Late Loyalists
Map - Niagara region Close up of the Simcoe Map
Aboriginals
Map - American and British boundaries Prior to the War of 1812 (Louisiana Purchase)
Niagara
Map - Close up of Gray's Map of Niagara 1810 .
Jay's Treaty of Amity, Commerce and Navigation.
Map - 1799 plan of Fort George


Prewar Time line
Causes of the War of 1812 (Modern Perspective)

CHARTS
1. French Canadian Settlement
2. Population of some major centres
3. Loyalist settlers in the Western outposts
4. 1st Wave of Loyalists settlers in Eastern Townships 1784 - 1785
5. Grand River Settlement 1785
6. Loyalist Settlements in established areas of Quebec.

Original documents
1.THE PETITION OF SIR JOHN JOHNSON AND OTHER LOYALISTS
2. FROM GENERAL HALDIMAND
3. Dedimus Potestum (Loyalty Oath)
4. INDIAN COUNCIL AT NIAGARA
5. EXTRACT FROM A LETTER FROM GENERAL HALDIMAND TO SIR JOHN JOHNSON, DATED HEAD QUARTERS QUEBEC
6. INDIAN COUNCIL AT NIAGARA and DEED OF LAND FROM THE MISSISSAGAS
7. NARRATIVE OF THE SERVICES OF LIEUT.-COLONEL JOHN BUTLER

BIOGRAPHIES
Joseph Brant
John Butler
Edward Jessup
Sir John Johnson
James Rogers
John Graves Simcoe