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Fort George National Historic Site of Canada


Late Loyalists

The largest group to settle Upper Canada before the War of 1812, were the Late Loyalists. Most Late Loyalists had either remained neutral through the American Revolution or were openly hostile toward the Crown. They seized on the opportunity (actively promoted by Simcoe and the Crown) to sell their land or possessions in the States and come north for the free land being offered (200-1,000 acres in exchange for a Loyalty Oath). The Late Loyalists were a potentially disloyal group and many tried to sell republicanism to Upper Canadians. The vocal Late Loyalists were seen as pariahs and social outcasts by legitimate Loyalists. Other Late Loyalists like the Mennonites who settled in Niagara peninsula in the late 1790's, left to escape compulsory military service in the American militia, because of religious convictions. (In Upper Canada, a person could forgo militia duty by paying a substitute fee.)

Close up Simcoe Map of Upper Canada 1803 - Niagara Region
Close up Simcoe Map of Upper Canada 1803 - Niagara Region
© Archives of Ontario / C 279-0-0-0-34; AO 492