Glossary of Terms
Adaptive Management - allows flexibility, as information becomes available management
decisions are revisited, re-evaluated and shifted if necessary.
Appropriate Activities - An activity which:
- is consistent with Parks Canada Guiding Principles and Operational Polices (1994) and the protection of ecological and/or commemorative integrity of protected heritage areas;
- is especially suited to the particular conditions of a specific protected heritage area; and
- provides the means to appreciate, understand and enjoy protected heritage area themes, messages and stories.
Biodiversity - The total genetic, species, and landscape variation within a given ecosystem.
Commemorative Integrity - A national historic site possesses commemorative integrity when:
- the resources directly related to the reasons for designation as a national historic site are not impaired or under threat,
- the reasons for designation as a national historic site are effectively communicated to the public, and
- the site’s heritage values (including those not related to the reasons for designation as a national historic site) are respected in all decisions and actions affecting the site.
Commemorative Integrity Statement - was prepared for Rogers Pass National Historic Site and defines the intent of the commemoration of this nationally-significant site. It identifies a range of heritage values pertaining to the site’s protection and presentation, as well as objectives for the achievement of these values. Produced in 1998 by Parks Canada.
Cooperating Association - A registered, non-government, non-profit corporation which provides services to the public at national parks, national historic sites, and historic canals. The cooperating association and their national umbrella organization, the Canadian Parks Partnerships (CPP), are partners with Parks Canada in achieving its mandate for heritage protection and education.
COSEWIC - The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada is a group of experts that assesses and designates which wild species are in some danger of disappearing from Canada.
Cultural Landscape - Any geographical area that has been modified, influenced, or given special cultural meaning by people.
Cultural Resource - A human work or place which gives evidence of human activity or has spiritual or cultural meaning, and which has been determined to have historic value.
Cultural Resource Management (CRM) - Generally accepted practices for the conservation and presentation of cultural resources. In Parks Canada, Cultural Resource Management encompasses the presentation and use, as well as the conservation of cultural resources.
Cumulative Effects - The combined impact of human-caused stressors, that is greater than the sum of individual impacts due to their interaction.
Ecological Integrity - With respect to a park, a condition that is determined to be characteristic of its natural region and likely to persist, including abiotic components and the composition and abundance of native species and biological communities, rates of change and supporting processes.
Ecological Integrity Statement - Document that provides an understanding of the state of the ecological integrity in a park and what needs to be done to maintain or restore it.
Ecology - The study of the relationships between living organisms (micro-organisms, plants and animals, including humans), and the relationships between the organisms and their physical environment.
Ecosystem -An ecosystem is a community of organisms, including humans, and its non-living environment interacting with one another and intimately linked by a variety of biological, chemical and physical processes. Ecosystems are often embedded within other, larger ecosystems.
Ecosystem Processes - The engines that drive ecosystems. They are usually associated with natural events that are needed to sustain ecosystems. Biological diversity, landscape patterns and changes in the state of an ecosystem are the result of ecosystem processes.
Environmental Impact - The effects of human interaction on natural and cultural resources.
Environmental Management System (EMS) - provides an overall system for the management of an organization’s environmental issues. It includes organization structure, planning activities, responsibilities, practices, procedures, processes and resources for developing, implementing, achieving and reviewing an organization’s environmental management goals. An EMS also provides an auditable system for documenting, tracking, managing and improving environmental performance.
Federal Heritage Building -Any federally owned building that has been designated by the Minister of Canadian Heritage under the Federal Heritage Building Policy.
Federal Heritage Buildings Review Office (FHBRO) -An interdepartmental advisory body responsible for identifying federal buildings that merit designation as heritage buildings, and for monitoring the conservation and continued use of these buildings.
Field Unit - An administrative division developed by Parks Canada, combining the management and administration of one or more national park(s), national historic site(s) or historic canal(s).
Fire Cycle - refers to the number of years required to burn over an area equal to the entire area of interest.
Flora - Plant life; the plant species of a particular area.
Heritage Tourism - An immersion in the natural history, human heritage, the arts and philosophy, and the institutions of another region or country that creates understanding, awareness and support for the nation’s heritage.
Historic Sites and Monument Board of Canada (HSMBC) -Advises the minister on the commemoration of those persons, events, sites, structures and places that represent nationally significant aspects of Canadian history.
Level I Cultural Resources - Cultural Resources that are of national significance and are directly linked to the commemorative intent of the National Historic Site. This is the highest level assigned to cultural resources in the custody of Parks Canada.
Level II Cultural Resources - Cultural Resources not directly linked with commemorative intent of the National Historic Site, but document important historical aspects.
Mitigation - The elimination, reduction or control of the adverse environmental effects of a project, use or activity.
Monitoring - To gather information consistently over time on one or a group of living organisms or non-living elements to determine their status, abundance, distribution and/or interactions with other organisms or the environment.
Native Species - Organisms that occur naturally in a particular area instead of being introduced, directly or indirectly, by human activity.
Non-Native Species - Species that did not occur naturally within the local ecosystem until relatively modern times. Their arrival within the ecosystem was facilitated by modern human activities and/or development.
Old-growth forest - In British Columbia, these are ecosystems dominated by large conifers over 220 years old where there is a mix of large living trees, large standing and fallen dead trees, and a multilayered canopy of younger trees.
Outreach Program - An off-site interpretation program that encourages public understanding and appreciation of Canada’s natural and cultural heritage.
Parks Canada Agency - The Parks Canada Agency is a public agency created by the Parks Canada Agency Act in December 1998. The agency has the mandate to conserve, protect, and present nationally significant natural and cultural heritage.
Precautionary Principle - Where uncertainty exists in the absence of good information regarding the potential impact of an action or inaction, prudence dictates that an approach be applied that has the least likelihood of negative consequences.
Restoration - The process of restoring an area, a natural resource, or an ecosystem to a specified state or condition. This can be accomplished passively through natural processes or actively by human manipulation.
Riparian - areas of land immediately adjacent to streams and rivers. Riparian also describes plants and animals associated with these areas.
Stakeholders -A person or organization with an interest in Glacier National Park, Mount Revelstoke National Park or Rogers Pass National Historic Site. Organizations may include both government and non-government organizations, commercial, and for profit or non-profit organizations.
Stewardship - Management of heritage resources in such a way that they can be passed on with integrity to future generations.
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