Periodic Report on the Application of the
World Heritage Convention

Section II

Report on the State of Conservation of
L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site


1 INTRODUCTION

1a State Party
CANADA
1b Name of World Heritage Site
L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site
1c Geographic Coordinates
Latitude 51°35"46'N / Longitude 55°32" W
1d Date of inscription
08/09/78
1e Date of subsequent extension(s)
Not applicable
1f Organization(s) responsible for the preparation of report
Organization Name: Parks Canada
Name: Bird, Chip
Title: Field Unit Superintendent
Address: P.O. Box 130
City: Rocky Harbour, Newfoundland and Labrador
Postal Code: A0K 4N0
Telephone: 709-458-2417
Fax Number: 709-458-2059
Email: chip.bird@pc.gc.ca
1g Date of submittal of report
N/A
1h Signature(s) on behalf of State Party
 

2 STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE

2a Original justification for inscription
The original nomination stated:
"As the only authenticated site of Norse settlement known in North America, the site is unique. As the earliest manifestation of European impact on the New World the site ranks among the major archaeological properties of the world."


2b Criteria for initial inscription
Cultural Criteria:
vi
Natural Criteria:

2c Agreed upon Statement of Significance
At the time of inscription, the World Heritage Committee did not agree upon a Statement of Significance.
Proposed Statement of Significance
The World Heritage Committee inscribes L'Anse Aux Meadows National Historic Site, Canada on the basis of cultural criteria (vi):
Criterion (vi): L'Anse aux Meadows is the first known site established by Vikings in North America, the earliest evidence of Europeans in the New World. L'Anse aux Meadows is a unique milestone in the history of human migration and the discovery of the universe.

(Note: The Statement of Significance proposed here reflects the definitions and numbering of the criteria at the time the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List. Changes in the definitions and numbering of the criteria since that time will need to be taken into account when officially submitting a Statement of Significance to the World Heritage Committee for approval. Clarification by the Committee of the criteria under which the site was inscribed will also affect the Statement of Significance that is officially submitted.)

2d Criteria added after initial inscription
Since the initial inscription, the World Heritage Committee has not added additional criteria to the inscription.
 

3 STATEMENT OF AUTHENTICITY/INTEGRITY

3a Initial evaluation of authenticity/integrity
In the nomination of L'Anse aux Meadows, Canada noted "Ever since the 18th century and the first publication of those medieval Icelandic manuscripts that contain the Vinland saga, there has been ...speculation regarding the presence of Norse settlements in the New World... L'Anse aux Meadows is the first site where such remains have been discovered and whose Norse provenience can be documented. The sod dwellings and workshops at L'Anse aux Meadows are thus the earliest known European structures in North America." Canada concluded that L'Anse aux Meadows "meets the test of authenticity."

In its technical review of the nomination, ICOMOS observed that the site "meets the test of authenticity."


3b Significant changes in authenticity/integrity
Since inscription, there have not been significant changes in the authenticity/integrity of the site.
Description of changes in authenticity/integrity
 

4 MANAGEMENT

Management Regime

4a Ownership/Management
Management under protective legislation
Description: The property is managed under the Canada National Parks Act (2000) and the Parks Canada Agency Act (1998). There are two regulations under the Canada National Parks Act: The National Historic Site General Regulations and the National Historic Site Wildlife and Domestic Animal Regulations.

4b Level of authority
National

Description: The Parks Canada Agency is a separate service agency under the federal Department of Environment. The Agency is responsible for the establishment and management of national parks, national historic sites and national marine conservation areas.


4c Legal status
L'Anse aux Meadows is a national historic site that is owned and managed by Parks Canada.

4d Agency/agencies with management authority
Agency Name: FUS, Western NF & Lab
Name: Bird, Chip
Title:
Address: Gros Morne National Park of Canada, PO Box 130
City: Rocky Harbour, NL
Postal Code: A0K 4N0
Telephone: 709-458-3539
Fax Number: 709-458-2836
Email: chip.bird@pc.gc.ca
Agency Name: Parks Canada Agency
Name: Chief Executive Officer,
Title:
Address: 25 Eddy Street, 7th Floor
City: Gatineau, Quebec
Postal Code: K1A 0M5
Telephone: 819-997-9525
Fax Number: 819-953-9745
Email:

4e Protective measures and means of implementing them
The Canada National Parks Act includes authorities to make regulations with respect to the management of specified national historic sites. For example, the National Historic Parks General Regulations make it an offence to disturb, remove, deface, damage or destroy any archaeological site or historical resource in the specified historic sites and provide the Superintendent with authority to restrict or prohibit activities and limit access to areas within the site. L'Anse aux Meadows is one of the national historic sites to which these Regulations apply.

Parks Canada Agency Act - This act outlines the purpose of the agency, to ensure that Canada's national parks, national historic sites and related heritage areas are protected and presented for this and future generations and it outlines generally the manner in which this will be achieved.

Activities that take place in L'Anse aux Meadows are also regulated under a number of federal and provincial laws, including:

Government of Canada Statutes:
Canada National Parks Act
Forestry Act
Migratory Bird Convention Act
Fisheries Act
Parks Canada Agency Act
Canadian Environmental Assessment Act

Government of Newfoundland and Labrador Statutes:
Wildlife Act
Environmental Protection Act
All-Terrain Vehicle and Motorized Snow Vehicle Act

4f Administrative and management arrangements
L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site is a part of the Western Newfoundland and Labrador Field Unit. The site is located at L'Anse aux Meadows; however, its administrative office is in Rocky Harbour, Newfoundland.

4g Significant changes in management regime since inscription
There have not been any significant changes to the ownership, legal status, contractual or traditional protective measures or management regime since the time of inscription.

4h Management plan
There is a management plan in place for the site.
Summary of management plan
The management plan for the site was approved in the fall of 2003.

The management plan states that Parks Canada's primary responsibility at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site is to ensure commemorative integrity. Commemorative integrity is defined by three elements: the resources directly related to the reasons for designation as a national historic site are not impaired or under threat; the reasons for designation are effectively communicated to the public; and heritage values are respected in all decisions and actions affecting the site. The commemorative integrity statement (CIS) for L'Anse aux Meadows, outlined in the management plan, states: "L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site is commemorated because it is the first known site established by Vikings in North America, the earliest evidence of Europeans in Canada." This commemorative integrity statement provided the basis for decision-making in the development of the management plan. The plan outlines strategies with respect to the protection of cultural resources, the heritage presentation program at the site, the management of natural resources and traditional activities and ongoing partnerships and public involvement that ensure the commemorative integrity of the site. This also ensured that the World Heritage values under which it has been designated by UNESCO are protected.

The site management plan for L'Anse aux Meadows addresses visitor and tourism management.

Financial Resources

4i Annual operating budget
C$ 415 800

Staffing Levels (Human Resources)

4j Staffing levels
Full time: 1
Part time: 0
Seasonal: 13
Other: 4
Site Supervisor
Historic Site Interpreters
Costumed Interpreters
Maintenance Staff
Labourer


Sources of expertise and training in conservation and management techniques

4k Sources of specialized expertise, training and services
L'Anse aux Meadows receives its specialized expertise, training and services from the Western Newfoundland and Labrador Field Unit at Gros Morne National Park in Rocky Harbour Newfoundland.
Support also comes from the Atlantic Service Centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia and the National Office in Gatineau, Quebec.

The artifacts from the Viking Period that were excavated early on at the site in L'Anse aux Meadows are owned by the province of Newfoundland and Labrador and are on display at the visitor reception centre in L'Anse aux Meadows. Those that are not on display are stored at the Atlantic Service Centre in Halifax or are on loan to other museums.

Visitation

4l Visitor statistics available
Visitor statistics are available for the site.
Annual visitation, methodology and trends
In 2002 – 33,031 people visited the site as indicated by a manual count at the visitor reception centre. This is the access point for the archaeological site and replica sod huts. Since the time of inscription the number of visitors to the site is generally increasing.

4m Visitor facilities
The facilities at the site include:
· A visitor centre that houses the reception desk, gift shop, permanent exhibits and a theatre that shows the National Film Board of Canada film "The Vinland Mystery".
· Four replica sod huts with costumed interpreters.
· A 3km-walking trail.
· Two picnic areas.
The visitor's centre and the replica sod huts were built since the site was inscribed on the World Heritage List. The sod huts are built on land outside the archaeological field.

4n Tourism/visitor management plan
There is a tourism/visitor management plan in place for the site.
Summary of tourism/visitor management plan
The tourism/management plan for this property is included in the site's management plan.

Scientific studies

4o Key scientific studies and research programs
Bibliography of Archaeological studies:

Cummings. L.M.
1974-1975 Geology of the L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park, Newfoundland. Typescript report, on file, Parks Canada Atlantic Service Centre.
Vol. I: "Bedrock Geology." 180 pages of text, diagrams and photographs.
Vol. II: "Geological and other source material (1919-1975)." 290 pages of photostat copies of scientific papers and other articles related to the park area.
Vol. III: "Recommendations, source material and geological map." 69 pages of field notes, 50 colour slides, geologic map, etc.

Davis, Anthony M. John H. McAndrews and Birgitta Wallace
1985 Historical Biogeography aand Archaeology: Reconstructing Past Environments at the L'Anse aux Meadows Site, Northern Newfoundland. Unpublished report by Dr. Anthony M. Davis, Department of Geography, University of Toronto. 38 pages. Toronto: University of Toronto.
1988 "Paleoenvironment and the Archaeological Record at the L'Anse aux Meadows site, Newfoundland." Geoarchaeology: An International Journal, Vol. 3, No. 1: 53-64. With A.M. Davis and J.H. McAndrews as senior authors.

Dawson, John E.
1976
"Identification of Samples of Archaeological Seeds from L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland". Manuscript File, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada, Ottawa.

Douglas, Andrew
1977 Wood from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report December 13, 1977. 251 samples. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.
1978a Wood Analysis, 4A Driftwood. Unpublished report May 1, 1978. 2 samples. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.
1978b L'Anse aux Meadows Wood Species Identification. Unpublished report on the identification of 10 wood samples, October 3, 1978. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.
1978b Identification of Wood Species of some L'Anse aux Meadows Artifacts. Unpublished report on the identification of 35 samples, December 28, 1978. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.
1979 Identification of Wood Species of a Wooden Stick from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report on 1 piece, January 4, 1979. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.

Federovich
1975 Diamtom analysis

Gimbarzevsky, Philip
1977
"L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park Integrated Survey of Biophysical Resources". Information Report, FMR-X-99, Forest Management Institute, Environment Canada, Ottawa.

Gleeson, Paul
1979 Study of Wood Material from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Paul Gleeson, Washington Archaeological Research Center, Washington State University. 23 pages, Ottawa: Parks Canada.

Grant, Douglas R.
1975 "Surficial Geology and Sea-Level Changes, L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park, Newfoundland." Paper 75-1, Part A, Geological Survey of Canada. Ottawa.

Henningsmoen, Kari E.
1977 "Pollen-analytical Investigations in the L'Anse aux Meadows Area, Newfoundland." In The Discovery of a Norse Settlement in America by Anne Stine Ingstad, pp. Oslo: Universitetsforlaget. Ingstad, Anne Stine and Helge Ingstad.

Ingstad, Anne Stine
1970 "The Norse Settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. A Preliminary Report from the Excavations." Acta Archaeologica, vol. 41. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
1977 The Discovery of a Norse Settlement in America: Excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, 1961-1968. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo.
1982 "The Norse Settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland." In Vikings in the West, edited by E. Guralnick, pp.31-37. Chicago: Archaeological Institute of America.

Ingstad, Helge
1960 Landet under leidarstjernen. En ferd til Gronlands norrone bygder. Gyldendal, Oslo.
1966 Land under the Pole Star. A Voyage to the Norse Settlements of Greenland and the Saga of the People that Vanished. Translated by Naomi Walford, Jonathan Cape, London.
1982 "The Discovery of a Norse Settlement in America." In Vikings in the West, edited by E. Guralnick, pp.24-30.Chicago: Archaeological Institute of America.
1986 Historical Background and the Evidence of the Norse Settlement at the L'Anse aux Meadows Site. Universitetsforlaget, Oslo.

Kuc, Marian
1973 Description with appendix of a fossilium collected by Marian Kuc 1973 in the archaeological trench at the Viking Site, L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, Canada. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Dr. Marian Kuc, Geological Survey of Canada. 5 pages. Ottawa: Parks Canada.
1975 "Paleoecological Inventory of the Norse Settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows Newfoundland." Project 690044. Terrain Science Division, Paper 75-1, Paper A: 445-450. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

Laflèche, Louis
1981 Wood Identifications from L'Anse aux Meadows. Identifications of 15 samples. Unpublished report June 19, 1981. Ottawa: Parks Canada.

Laflèche, Louis and Andrew Douglas
1977 Wood from L'Anse aux Meadows. Identification of 245 piece Unpublished report. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.

Lamberton, R.D. and John E. Maunder
1976 An Avifaunal Survey of L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by R.D. Lamberton, Mount Allison University and John E. Maunder, Bruce Mactavish, Melvin McNeill and David Moffat. Final Report, March 15, 1976. 163 pages. Ottawa: Parks Canada.

Lindsay, Charles S.
1975 "A Preliminary Report on the 1974 Excavations of Norse Buildings D and E at L'Anse aux Meadows." Manuscript Report, No. 156. 87 pp. Ottawa: Parks Canada, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Indian and Northern Affairs.

1977 "Was L'Anse aux Meadows a Norse Outpost?" Canadian Geographic Journal, February/March 1977:36-43, illus.

Matthews, Keith
1974 Notes on the History of L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Dr. Keith Matthews, Department of History, Memorial University of Newfoundland. 6 pages. Ottawa: Parks Canada.

McAndrews John and Anthony M. Davis
1978 Pollen Analysis at the L'Anse aux Meadows Norse Site. Archaeological Research Section, Canadian Parks Service, Environment Canada, Halifax, N.S.

McCawley, J.C.
1973 Results of Phosphate Analysis of Soils from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report November 20, 1973. 5 pages and map. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.
1975a Soil Phosphorous Levels at L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report. 7 pages. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.
1975b Examination of Charcoal and Other Burnt Material from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report July 31, 1975. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.

Moore, James
1978 L'Anse aux Meadows Wood Samples. Unpublished report March 16, 1978. 16 samples. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.

Moore, James and Tom Daley
1976 Wood Species Identifications, L'Anse aux Meadows. Identification of 120 samples Unpublished report. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.

Mott, Richard
1975 "Palynological Studies of Peat Monoliths from L'Anse aux Meadows Norse Site." Geological Survey of Canada, Paper 75-1, Part A, 1975: 451-454. Ottawa: Geological Survey of Canada.

Northcott, Tom H.
1976 The Land and Sea Mammals of L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park, Newfoundland. Report for Parks Canada, file No. 25/1 Vikings. 111 pages. Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs.

Nowland,...
1977 Soil Analysis Report. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Dr.Nowland, December 19, 1977. 3 pages. Ottawa: Parks Canada.

Perem, E.
1974 Observations on Wood Material from the Norse Habitation Site at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. Unpublished report for Parks Canada October 1974 by Dr. E. Perem, Wood Anatomist, Canadian Forest Service, Eastern Forest Products Laboratory. 12 pages, 77 samples. Ottawa: Parks Canada.
1978a Wood identification. Identification of 2 samples. Unpublished report March 22, 1978 by Dr. E. Perem, Canadian Forest Service, Eastern Forest Products Laboratory. Ottawa: Parks Canada.
1978b L'Anse aux Meadows Wood Samples. Identification of 20 samples. Unpublished report by Dr. E. Perem, Canadian Forest Service, Eastern Forest Products Laboratory. Ottawa: Parks Canada.


Pollett, Frederick C. W. J. Meades and Alexander W. Robertson
1975 The classification and interpretation of the vegetation resource within L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park. Unpublished report for Parks Canada.

Pollett, Frederick C. W. J. Meades and Alexander W. Robertson
1975 The vegetation of L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park with photography by Kevin Veigh. Unpublished colour photographs selected for Parks Canada.

Pride, Calvin
1978 Petrological-Geochemical Report on Archaeological Samples from L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Dr. Calvin Pride, Geology Department, University of Ottawa, Ottawa. 6 pages.

Rick, Anne M.
1977 Analysis of Bone Remains from L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Anne M. Rick, Head, Zooarchaeological Identification Centre, National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa. 15 pages. Parks Canada.

Robertson, Alexander
1978 Chemical-Analytical Investigations of the Archaeological Site at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Dr. Alexander Robertson, Curator, Newfoundland Forest Research Centre Herbarium. 23 pages. Halifax: Parks Canada Atlantic Service Centre.

Rombough, Peter J. Stephen E. Barbour and Joseph J. Kerekes
n.d. Unpublished report for Parks Canada by Peter J. Rombough and Stephen E. Barbour, Biology Department, Dalhousie University and Joseph J. Kerekes, Department of Fisheries and Environment Canada Wildlife Service, Halifax. 32 tables, 5 appendices. Ottawa: Parks Canada

Salmon, M.E.
1975 Interim Report on Slag and Bog Ore from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished Report. Ottawa: Parks Canada Conservation Division. 2 pages.

Schonback, Bengt, Charles S. Lindsay and Birgitta Wallace
1976 "Progress Report on Archaeological Fieldwork at L'Anse aux Meadows, June to October, 1975." Research Bulletin, No. 33. 288 pp., 9 figs.

Smith, Muriel
1978 Identifications of Shell from Newfoundland Peat Bog. Unpublished report for Parks Canada May 31, 1978 by Muriel Smith, 87 samples. Ottawa: Parks Canada.

Spiess, Arthur E.
1990 Identifications of Calcined Bone from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report for Parks Canada February 1990 by Dr. Arthur E. Spiess, Maine Historic Preservation Commission. 3 pages. Halifax: Parks Canada Atalntic Service Centre.

Stewart, John and Henry Unglik
1976 Examination of Slags and Bog Ores from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report July 28, 1976. Ottawa: Parks Canada, Conservation Division. 67 pages.


Unglik, Henry and John Stewart
1978 L'Anse aux Meadows Iron Working Study. Unpublished report September 1978. Ottawa: Parks Canada Conservation Division. 4 pages.
1979a Metallurgical Examination of Archaeological Material from L'Anse aux Meadows. Unpublished report October 19, 1979. 4 pages. Ottawa: Conservation Division, Parks Canada.
1979b Metallurgical Investigation of Archaeological Material of Norse Origin from L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland. Unpublished report September 1979. Ottawa: Parks Canada, Conservation Division. 481 pages.
1999 The Metallurgy of Norse Material from L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland, by Henry Unglik, M. Eng. and John Stewart, M. Sc. 472 pp., 33 figs.,78 tables. Analytical Services Section, Research and Analysis, Ontario Service Centre, Parks Canada, Ottawa, March 1999. A supplement was issued at the same time, Atlas of Microstructures of Norse Material from L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland by Henry Unglik, M. Eng. and John Stewart, M.Sc. 137 pp.

Wallace, Birgitta (Linderoth)
1977a "The 1976 Excavations at L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland." Research Bulletin No. 67. 15 pp., 3 figs. Ottawa: Parks Canada.
1977b "The Norse in Newfoundland." Conservation Canada, Summer 1977, pp. 3-7, 7 figs. Ottawa: Parks Canada. Reprinted in The Icelandic Canadian, Vol. 43, No. 4, Summer 1985.
1978 "Les Vikings à Terre-Neuve." Dossiers de l'archéologie, No. 27, pp. 44-48, 7 figs. Dijon: Archeologis; Bruxelles: Editions Soumillion. Reprinted as L'Anse aux Meadows in Les Vikings, rois des mers, 1984, pp. 158-161. Paris: Gallimard.
1983 "Resultaten av de senare grävningarna vid L'Anse aux Meadows." In Hus, gård och bebyggelse. Föredrag från det XVI nordiska arkeologmötet, Island 1982, pp. 259-270, 6 figs. Edited by Gudmundur Olafsson. Reykjavik: Thjódminjasafn Islands.1984
1985 "L'Anse aux Meadows." The Canadian Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 997. Edmonton: Hurtig.
1986 "The L'Anse aux Meadows Site." Appendix VI in The Norse Atlantic Saga ... A New and Enlarged Edition ... by Gwyn Jones, pp. 285-304, figs. 26-30. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.
1987 "Norse Voyages and Settlement." In Historical Atlas of Canada, edited by R. Cole Harris, Vol. 1, Plate 16. With Alan Macpherson as senior author. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
1990 "Norrænar fornminjar á L'Anse aux Meadows" Translated from English into Icelandic by Olafur Halldórsson. Årbók hins íslenzka fornleifafélags Volume 89:133-151.
1991 "L'Anse aux Meadows: Excavating the Past." In Discover What is Near by John McInnes pp. 69-79. Scarborough, Ontario: Nelson Canada.
1991 "L'Anse aux Meadows: Gateway to Vinland." Acta Archaeologica vol. 61 (1990): 166-197. Copenhagen: Munksgaard.
1992 "L'Anse aux Meadows, den vestlige udpost." In Vikingernes sejlads til Nordamerika ed. by Birthe L. Clausen and Keld Hansen, pp. 29-42. Translated from English into Danish. Roskilde, Denmark, Vikingeskibshallen.
1992 Catalogue texts 343 and 344 for L'Anse aux Meadows artifacts in From Viking to Crusader. Scandinavia and Europe 800-1200, pp. 316-317. Copenhagen: Nordic Council of Ministers.
1993a "L'Anse aux Meadows." Medieval Scandinavia, Garland Encyclopedias of the Middle Ages, ed. by Philip Pulsiano l. Hamden, CT: Garland Publishing.
1993b "L'Anse aux Meadows, the Western Outpost." In Viking Voyages to North America, ed. by Birthe L. Clausen, pp. 30-42. Roskilde, Denmark: Viking Ship Museum.

1996 Norse Expansion into North America. Http://www.heureka.fi/en/x/nxwallace.html. Revised February 2001.
1999 "The Norse in the North Atlantic." In Cabot and His World. Symposium June 1997. Papers and Presentations, edited by Iona Bulgin, pp. 29-47, 10 figures. St. John's, NF: Newfoundland Historical Society.
2000a "The Viking Settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows." In Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga, ed. by William W. Fitzhugh and Elisabeth Ward, pp. 208-216. Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Institution.
2000b "An Archaeologist's Interpretation of the Vinland Sagas." In Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga, ed. by William W. Fitzhugh and Elisabeth Ward, pp. 228-231. Washington, DC: The Smithsonian Institution.
2000c "Vinland's Place in the Viking World." In Full Circle, First Contact: Vikings and Skraelings in Newfoundland and Labrador, edited by K. McAleese, pp. 51-55. St John's, NF: Newfoundland Museum/Government of Newfoundland and Labrador.
2000d "The Norse in the North Atlantic: The L'Anse aux Meadows Settlement in Newfoundland." In Proceedings, The International Congress on the History of the Arctic and Sub-Arctic Region, 18-21 June 1998, edited by Ingi Sigurðsson and Jón Skaptason, pp. 486-500, 5 figures. Reykjavik: University of Iceland Press in co-operation with the Institute of History , University of Iceland, the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and External Trade of Iceland and the Stefansson Arctic Institute.
2001a "Vinland 1000 - A European outpost in North America." Volume on the European world in the Year 1000, edited by Przemyslaw Urbanczyk. Warsaw, Poland: University of Warsaw.
2001b "Science and Story as it Relates to L'Anse aux Meadows, Newfoundland." With Joan Clark as joint author. In Rediscovering Canadian Difference, edited by Gudrun Björk Gudsteins. The Nordic Association for Canadian Studies Text Series, volume 17: 222-229. Reykjavik: Nordic Association for Canadian Studies and the Vigdis Finnbogadóttir Institute for Foreign Languages.
2001c "L'Anse aux Meadows and Vinland." In Approaches to Vinland. Proceedings of a conference on the written and archaeological sources for the Norse settlements in the North-Atlantic region and exploration of America, held at The Nordic House, Reykjavik 9-11 August 1999, edited by Andrew Wawn and Þórunn Sigurðardóttir, pages 134-146. Reykjavik: Sigurdur Nordal Institute.

Non archaeological studies:

Bouchard, Andre, Luc Brouillet, and Stuart G. Hay, The Rare Vascular Plants of L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park, Newfoundland, prepared for Canadian Parks Service, Environment Canada, March, 1993.

Damman, A.W.H. 1983. "An ecological subdivision of the island of Newfoundland," in Monographiae Biologicae 48:163-206. Biogeography and Ecology of the Island of Newfoundland. Edited by G.R. South, Dr. W. Junk Publishers, The Hague.

Gimbarzevsky, P., L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Park, Integrated Survey of Biophysical Resources, Forest Management Institute Information Report FMR-X-99, September, 1977.

Rare Plant survey is being updated at present.
Use of results of scientific studies and research programs
These studies and research programs have helped ensure the accuracy and authenticity of the heritage presentation program at the World Heritage Site.
Role of WHS designation in design of scientific studies and research programs
The World Heritage Site designation does not play a significant role in the design of these scientific studies and research programs.

Education, Information and Awareness Building


4p WHS plaque
There is a plaque at the site indicating that it is a World Heritage Site.

4q Use of WHC logo
The World Heritage Convention logo is not used on all publications for the site.

4r Educational programs for schools
There are educational programs about the site's World Heritage values aimed at schools.
Description of educational programs for schools
There is a program developed for schoolteachers that introduces teachers to World Heritage Site values. There are also activities performed by the encampment staff that has been delivered to Grade 5 students but the program can be adapted to any level.

4s Special events and exhibitions
There are special events and exhibitions concerning the site's World Heritage values.
Description of special events and exhibitions
The "Meeting of Two Worlds" is an interpretive artwork that captures the historical significance of L'Anse aux Meadows. It is two parts that symbolically correspond to the geographic points of departure and landing of the Vikings. The two pieces come together to form an archway over the walking trail leading to the archaeological site, where the elements meet, representing the first contact between the European and North American Aboriginal cultures.

The site has also hosted a number of dignitaries. In the past two years the site has been visited by the King and Queen of Norway, the ambassadors to Canada from Finland, Norway and Austria, and the Governor General of Canada, to name a few.

4t Facilities, visitor centre, site museum, trails, guides, information materials
In addition to the facilities described in 4m, the World Heritage Site has the following:
· A visitor centre which houses exhibits.
· A walking trail to the archaeological site, and then continues along the shoreline and back to the parking lot in the rear of the visitor centre.

Guided tours are offered regularly of the archaeological site.

There are number of published books on Vinland and the story of L'Anse aux Meadows available for purchase at the gift shop. Information about the site is available on the Parks Canada website and there is also a site brochure.


4u Role of WHS designation in education, information and awareness building activities
The teachers' institute, a program developed for schoolteachers, introduces World Heritage values to these teachers and in so doing contributes to education, information and awareness. The World Heritage Site designation has been used as a marketing and promotional tool by the province and private businesses. Many of the programs at the site have been developed as a result of its status as a national historic site, however, these programs also support the communication of World Heritage Site values.
 

5 FACTORS AFFECTING THE PROPERTY

5a Development Pressures
The World Heritage Site is located on the tip of the Newfoundland's Northern Peninsula. Eight small communities adjacent to the site have a combined population of just over 1,200. This sparse population in a remote, rural area means there are no development pressures on the site.

5b Environmental Pressures
The archaeological remains have been reburied, therefore there are no environmental pressures.

5c Natural Disasters and Preparedness
Not applicable

5d Visitor/Tourism Pressures
The 2003 Commemorative Integrity Evaluation (4h1) stated that only one threat is likely to both have an effect on the site or its resources and which could result in a high level of impairment. This relates to adverse use impacts, particularly filming on site; film crews want to film the artifacts without showcases; heat and lighting are concerns; there are 10-15 requests yearly and most do not want visitors around during filming. This threat is mitigated through guidelines established and enforced by the site.

The 2003 management plan noted that visitation patterns for the site sometimes cause capacity concerns. The size of commerical tour groups often overwhelms the capacity of the visitor centre and sod huts. The past practice of parking tour buses near the sod huts also interfered with the site's view planes. The plan also noted that the visitor population is aging and there is a higher proportion of visitors with disabilities. The current heritage presentation program is being evaluated and restructured to help alleviate site congestion and to ensure all messages of national significance are accessible to visitors with hearing, visual and mobility impairments. Any changes to the heritage presentation program, and current and forseeable visitor use will not cause any damage to the cultural resources, as significant components of the structures from Viking habitation and some of the middens remain in situ and are protected by inert material and sodded over.

5e Number of inhabitants within property, buffer zone
There is no buffer zone around the national historic site and there are no inhabitants living within the site. Section 4e of the Nomination Document states that the area of the national historic site surrounding the archaeological site would provide an ample buffer zone for the Norse Remains. There are, however, eight communities adjacent to the site with a population of approximately 1,200. These residents carry out a number of traditional activities within the boundaries, including domestic wood harvesting, berry picking, hunting migratory birds, recreational fishing, and snowmobiling. Parks Canada and area residents have acknowledged in the development of the management plan that its objective is to ensure that the management of traditional activities respects the commemorative integrity of the site and the management of natural ecosystem features as outlined in Parks Canada's Cultural Resource Management Policy. All of these activites occur on the surface and do not put the World Heritage values in danger. The management of these activities ensures there is no threat to the World Heritage values of the site.

5f Other
Not applicable
 

6 MONITORING

Administrative arrangements for monitoring property

6a Formal monitoring program
There is a formal monitoring program established for the site.
Description of formal monitoring program
The Parks Canada Agency Act (1998) states that it is in the national interest to ensure the commemorative integrity of national historic sites. The act further stipulates that Parks Canada should report regularly to Parliament on the state of the protected heritage areas in its care. To meet this requirement Parks Canada has begun to carry out evaluations on the state of commemorative integrity. The evaluation looked at the condition of the resources (e.g. archaeological site, artifacts, landscape features) and the effectiveness of the heritage presentation program in communicating the significance of the site. The first evaluation for L'Anse aux Meadows was carried out in the summer of 2002. L'Anse aux Meadows was given a rating of 8 out of 10. A multi-disciplinary team from Parks Canada including cultural resource, policy and strategic planning, maintenance, capital works and interpretation staff as well as wardens, site supervisor and archaeologists carried out the evaluation.

Parks Canada also completes a State of Protected Heritage Areas Report every two years and L'Anse aux Meadows will be evaluated and reported through this report.

The archaeological collection contains approximately 800 artifacts, 300 animal bones and other specimens. Except for those on exhibit, the archaeological artifacts and specimens are curated in the Atlantic Service Centre archaeological storage facility.

Staff at the site monitor the archaeological site when the area is not covered by snow. Any changes would be noticed and if professional archaeological work is needed personnel from the Atlantic Service Centre are involved.


Key indicators for measuring state of conservation

6b Agreed upon key indicators
No key indicators for measuring the state of conservation of the site's World Heritage values have been agreed upon.
Future development of key indicators
Parks Canada's primary responsibility at national historic sites is to ensure commemorative integrity. Each site must have an approved Commemorative Integrity Statement (4h1). The Commemorative Integrity Statement describes what are the key indicators for the site that will be monitored to ensure protection and preservation of the site. The monitoring program outlined in 6a shows how the Commemorative Integrity Statement is monitored, thereby also protecting the World Heritage values of the site.

Results of previous reporting exercises

6c State Party actions in response to World Heritage Committee recommendations
Not applicable
 

7 CONCLUSIONS

World Heritage Values

7a Main conclusions regarding the state of the property's World Heritage Values
L'Anse aux Meadows is designated as a World Heritage Site in recognition of its symbolic significance in the history of the world-wide exploration and movements of peoples. It is the first known site established by Vikings in North America, the earliest evidence of Europeans in the New World and it continues to meet the test of authenticity. The 2002 Commemorative Integrity Evaluation stated that only one threat is likely to both have an effect on the site or its resources and which could result in a high level of impairment. This relates to adverse use impacts, particularly filming on site. This threat is mitigated through guidelines established and enforced by the site.

Management and factors affecting site

7b Main conclusions regarding the management of and factors affecting the property
The management plan for the site was approved in the fall of 2003. The management plan states that Parks Canada's primary responsibility at L'Anse aux Meadows National Historic Site is to ensure its commemorative integrity. It outlines strategies with respect to the protection of cultural resources, the heritage presentation program at the site, the management of natural resources and traditional activities and ongoing partnerships and public involvement that ensure the commemorative integrity of the site. This also ensured that the World Heritage values under which UNESCO has designated it are protected. There are eight communities adjacent to the site with a population of approximately 1,200. These residents carry out a number of traditional activities within the boundaries. The management of these activities ensures there is no threat to the World Heritage values of the site.

Proposed Future Action(s)

7c Approved future actions
New National Historic Site Regulations are being developed at the national level. These regulations will help Parks Canada better manage national historic sites by protecting and preserving its cultural and natural resources while managing human use activities (e.g. rabbit snaring at L'Anse aux Meadows).

Annual business planning will be used at the field unit level to address: the strategic objectives presented in the field unit's management plans; the national strategic directions of Parks Canada; and any concerns that may arise from periodic evaluations.

The Engaging Canadians Strategy is Parks Canada's strategy for external communications. It is designed to inform, influence and involve stakeholders and the public in the protection and presentation of special places. The strategy will be used to assist all levels of the Parks Canada organization in planning, prioritizing and undertaking activities in the development and delivery of communication products targeted to external audiences in support of the agency's mandate.

Responsible Implementing Agency(ies)

7d Agency(ies) responsible for implementing actions
Agency Name: Parks Canada
Name: Bird, Chip
Title:
Address: P.O. Box 130
City: Rocky Harbour, Newfoundland and Labrador
Postal Code: A0K 4N0
Telephone: 709 458-2417
Fax Number: 709 458-2059
Email: chip.bird@pc.gc.ca 

Timeframe for Implementation

7e Timeline for implementation of actions
New National Historic Site regulations - uncertain
Sustainable business planning - next five years
Engaging Canadians strategy - ongoing

Needs for International Assistance

7f Anticipated Requests for International Assistance
It is not anticipated that International Assistance, through the World Heritage Fund, will be requested.

Actions State Party Intends to Request from World Heritage Committee

7g Potential Decisions for the World Heritage Committee
  • Change to criteria for inscription
  • Proposed new Statement of Significance, where previously missing