On most lands in Canada (i.e., lands other than federal lands), notice of proposed archaeological research must be brought to the attention of the competent provincial or territorial archaeological authority (sidebar above). These authorities will usually stipulate conditions, often including consultation with, for example, affected First Nations.
Archaeological research on federal lands requires the approval of the relevant federal officials.
In the case of national parks or national historic sites, that means the Parks Canada Agency.
In the case of the Department of National Defence, it usually means the base commander,who is governed by that Department's archaeological rules.
On other federally regulated lands or projects, research within the confines of an environmental impact assessment must meet the standards of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency.
In all other federal cases, the approval is essentially up to the relevant department's land manager.