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Policies and Guidelines

Parks Canada Archaeological Recording Manual: Excavations and Surveys

Contents

1.0 Preface

2.0 Introduction

3.0 Work instruments and general requirements

4.0 Provenience system

4.1 Provenience: an overview
  • 4.1.1 Provenience: Components
  • 4.1.2 General Principles of Provenience Application
  • 4.1.3 The Provenience System and Archaeological Resource Evaluation

4.2 Site number
  • 4.2.1 Site Number: Definition
  • 4.2.1.1 Archaeological Site: Definition
  • 4.2.2 Site Number: Components
  • 4.2.3 Site Number: Application
    • Principles
    • Values
  • 4.2.4 Site Number: Assignment
  • 4.2.5 Archaeological Surveys
  • 4.2.6 Borden System of Site Identification
4.3 Operation number
  • 4.3.1 Operation: Definition
  • 4.3.2 Operation Number: Application
    • Principle
    • Values
  • 4.3.3 Operation Number: Assignment
    • Method
    • Rules
4.4 The suboperation
  • 4.4.1 Suboperation: Definition
  • 4.4.2 Suboperation: Application
    • Principle
    • Values
  • 4.4.3 Suboperation: Assignment
    • Method
    • Rules
4.5 The lot
  • 4.5.1 Lot: Definition
  • 4.5.2 Lot Number: Application
    • Principles
    • Values
  • 4.5.3 Lot Number: Assignment
    • Method
    • Rules
4.6 Cataloguing objects in the field
  • 4.6.1 Object Catalogue Number: Definition
  • 4.6.2 Object Catalogue Number: Application
    • Principles
    • Values
  • 4.6.3 Object Catalogue Number: Assignment
    • Method
    • Best Practice
4.7 Grid systems of excavation
  • 4.7.1 Shipwrecks
4.8 Balks

4.9 Additional definitions
  • 4.9.1 Isolated Archaeological Find
  • 4.9.1.1 Isolated Archaeological Find: Definition
4.10 Archaeological resource
  • 4.10.1 Archaeological Resource: Definition
4.11 Examples of provenience application
  • 4.11.1 Site Number: Examples of Application
    • Case A: Typical Examples of Site Numbers
    • Case B: Archaeological Excavations
    • Case C: Exceptional Examples
    • Case D: Archaeological Surveys
  • 4.11.2 Operation: Examples of Application
    • Case A: Typical Examples of Operation Numbers
    • Case B: Defining Culturally Meaningful Units
    • Case C: Guidelines for Using and Ascribing Operations
  • 4.11.3 Suboperation: Examples of Application
    • Case A: Typical Examples of Suboperation Letter
    • Case B: Suboperations as Analytical Units
  • 4.11.4 Lot Number: Examples of Application
    • Case A: Typical Examples of Lot Number
    • Case B: Specific Examples of Lot Number
      • Application
      • Layer of Deposition
      • Structural Element
      • Arbitrary Level
      • Stratification Interface
      • Archaeological Objects and Samples
      • Backhoe Trench Wall
      • Borehole Tests/Core Samples
4.12 Data and metadata standards for provenience
  • 4.12.1 Site Number
    • Format
    • Mandatory Associated Data and Metadata
  • 4.12.2 Operation
    • Format
    • Mandatory Associated Data and Metadata
  • 4.12.3 Suboperation
    • Format
    • Mandatory Associated Data and Metadata
  • 4.12.4 Lot
    • Format
    • Mandatory Associated Data and Metadata
  • 4.12.5 Object Catalogue Number
    • Format
    • Mandatory Associated Data and Metadata
  • 4.12.6 Notes

5.0 Organizing field projects

5.1 Basic guidelines, requirements, and principles for conducting field projects
  • 5.1.1 Archaeological Research Permits
  • 5.1.2 Occupational Health and Safety Requirements
  • 5.1.3 Key Parks Canada Documents
  • 5.1.4 Human Remains, Cemeteries, and Burial Grounds
  • 5.1.5 Functional Coordination
  • 5.1.6 Final Agreements and Consultation with Aboriginal Groups
5.2 Basic principles for planning field camps

5.3 Basic principles for organizing field records

5.4 Recommended references for field projects
  • 5.4.1 Basic Archaeological Field Procedures
  • 5.4.2 Archaeological Surveys/Inventories
  • 5.4.3 Field Conservation

6.0 Field notes and forms

6.1 Principles

6.2 Best practices

6.3 Staff field number
  • 6.3.1 Staff Field Number: Components
    • 6.3.1.1 Worker Area Code Letter
  • 6.3.2 Assignment
6.4 Field notebook
  • 6.4.1 Field Notebook: Guidelines
  • 6.4.2 Page
  • 6.4.3 Date
  • 6.4.4 Cross Reference to Other Staff Field Notebooks
  • 6.4.5 Provenience
  • 6.4.6 Images
  • 6.4.7 Drawings, Maps and Other Media
  • 6.4.8 Forms
  • 6.4.9 Samples
  • 6.4.10 Digital File Naming Conventions
6.5 Summaries
  • 6.5.1 Operation Summary
  • 6.5.2 Suboperation Summary
  • 6.5.3 Lot Summary
  • 6.5.4 Structure/Area Summary
  • 6.5.5 Stratigraphy (Layer/Event) Summary
6.6 Table of contents

7.0 Images

7.1 Principles and guidelines

7.2 Image cataloguing system
  • 7.2.1 Image Type Code
  • 7.2.2 Exposure/Record Number
    • 7.2.2.1 Film Photography
    • 7.2.2.2 Digital Photography
7.3 Image catalogue number

7.4 Image catalogue form: explained
  • 7.4.1 Image Selection Process
  • 7.4.2 Duplicate Images
  • 7.4.3 Studio Images of Catalogued Archaeological Objects
7.5 Data standards for digital images
  • Format
  • Mandatory Data
  • Image Preservation Standards
  • Image Metadata

8.0 Drawings, maps, and other media

8.1 Principles

8.2 Data standards for drawings, maps and other media
  • 8.2.1 Provenience
  • 8.2.2 Drawing Catalogue Number
  • 8.2.3 Area
  • 8.2.4 Description
  • 8.2.5 Scale
  • 8.2.6 Date
  • 8.2.7 References
  • 8.2.8 Coordinates and Elevations
8.3 Maps

8.4 Other media
  • 8.4.1 Media Catalogue Number
  • 8.4.2 Codes for Media Records
8.5 Media selection process

8.6 Media catalogue form: explained

9.0 Archaeological objects: traceability from field to lab

9.1 Principles

9.2 Essential data
  • Best Practices

10.0 Bibliography

11.0 Recommended reading

11.1 Archaeology Field Manuals (General)

11.2 Archaeological Surveys/Inventories

11.3 Osteological and Zoological Analysis

11.4 Soils/Stratigraphic Analysis

11.5 Underwater Archaeology

11.6 Archaeological Field Conservation

11.7 Miscellany

11.8 Parks Canada Directives

11.9 Parks Canada Policy and Guidelines

11.10 Legislation and Regulations

12.0 Abbreviations

Appendix A: Parks Canada Archaeological Site Inventory Form and Form Guide

Appendix B: Image Catalogue Form and Form Guide (PDF, 317 KB)

Appendix C: Media Catalogue Form and Form Guide (PDF, 260 KB)

Appendix D: Suboperation Summary Form (PDF, 295 KB)

Appendix E: Lot Summary Form and Form Guide (PDF, 262 KB)

Appendix F: Stratigraphy Summary Form and Form Guide (PDF, 287 KB)

Appendix G: Human Remains, Cemeteries, and Burial Grounds

Appendix H: Digital Multimedia – Recommendations for Preservation

Appendix I: Provenience Application – Additional Examples

List of Figures

List of Tables


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